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LIBRARY 
Brigham Young University 




GIFT OF 



Tell Muhlestein 



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Digitized by the Internet Arcliive 
in 2011 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 



http://www.archive.org/details/oursouthafricanfOOcomp 



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j Edited by 

R. H. COMPTON, M.A. (Cantab.), F.R.S.S.Af., Hon. F.R.H.S. 

Director of the National Botanic Gardens. Kirstenboscb, Cape Town. 



Geredigeer dew 

R. H. COMPTON, M.A. (Cantab.), F.R.S.S.Af., Hon. F.R.H.S. 

Direkteur van die Nasionale Botaniese Turn, Kirstenbosch^ Kaapstad. 



THIS ALBUM, 
WHEN COMPLETED, CONTAINS TOO CARDS ISSUED BY 
ARRANGEMENT WITH THE UNITED TOBACCO COS. (SOUTh) 
LTD., WESTMINSTER TOBACCO CO. (c. T. & L.) LTD., 
POLICANSKY BROTHERS LIMITED, FOR THE BENEFIT OF 
SMOKERS OF THEIR PRODUCTS. 

WANNEER VOLTOOI, 
BE VAT HIERDIE ALBUM lOO KAARTJIES UITGEREIK 
VOLGENS REELING MET THE UNITED TOBACCO COS. 
(south) LTD., WESTMINSTER TOBACCO CO. (c. T. & L.) 
LTD., POLICANSKY BROTHERS LIMITED, IN BELANG VAN 
ROKERS VAN HUL PRODUKTE. 



Weí>*uiAi^taá 



III 



ír(DlliíEW®I^© 



/ f / HE Flora of South Africa is celebrated for its great si:(e as reckoned 
JL in number of species ; for its endless botanical interest ; and also for 
its richness in plants of beauty and distinction. 

The illustrations in this book have been made from a few of the vast number 
of subjects which the South African flora presents. They depict plants from 
various parts of the Union, though the Cape Province with its outstanding floral 
rvealth is most in evidence. They have also been chosen in order to give examples 
of plants of various natural affinities , though here again certain families have 
more than their share and others less. Many of our floral favourites which have 
been figured on innumerable occasions are here omitted, their places being taken 
by less familiar subjects. Photography has been used throughout, direct colour 
work in some cases, hand-coloured prints in others. Nearly all the pictures 
have been made from specimens grown in the National Botanic Gardens, 
Kirstenbosch. 

In the first part of the book^ is discussed the origin of the South African 
Flora, its resemblances to the floras of other countries and its differences from 
them, this involving the absorbing problems of geographical distribution, migra- 
tion and evolution. 

Next follows a brief summary of the most important families of which 
our flora is composed, with a few remarks on each and references to the illus- 



IV 



THE LIBRARVv 
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSIT? 
PROVO, UTAH 



^®®iaw®(Di^© 



^l\IE plantegroei van Suid-Afrika is beroemd weens sy groot verskei- 
-J-^ denheidy weens sy oneindigende botaniese belangrikheid en iveens sy ryke 
skat van pragtige en unieke soorte. 

Die afbeeldings in hierdie bundel is die van *n paar van die eindelose 
verskeidenheid wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse plantewereld aangebied word. 
Hulk stel plante uit verskillende dele van die Unie voovj alhoewel die uit die 
Kaapprovinsie met sy buitengewone blommerykdom die meerderheid uitmaak. 
Hulle is ook gekies om voorbeelde van plante met verskeie kenmerke van natuur- 
like verwantskap aan te toon, alhoewel daar ook hier sekere soorte is wat meer^ 
en ander wat minder as hul regmatige aandag verkry, 'n Groot aantal van 
ons geliefkoosde blomme wat a I bale dikwels bespreek is, is hier weggelaat 
en hul plekke word deur minder hekende soorte ingeneem. Dwarsdeur is van 
fotografie gebruik gemaak, in sommige gevalle regstreekse kleurfotografie en in 
ander gevalle prente met die hand gekleur. Byna al die afbeeldings is van plante 
ivat in die Nasionale Botaniese Tuin, Kirstenbosch, gekweek word. 

In die eerste deel van die bundel word die oorsprong van die Suid- 
Afrikaanse plantegroei, die ooreenstemmings en afwy kings daarvan in verge- 
ly king met die plantegroei van ander lande, behandel, waarby die boeiende 
vraagstukke insake geografiese distribusie, verspreiding en evolusie, ook be- 
handel word. 

Daarna volg 'n kort opsomming van die helangrikste families waaruit 
ons plantegroei hestaan, met 'n paar aantekeninge oor elkeen en verwysings na 



trations. This and in fact the whole hook is necessarily inadequate to the 
subject. 

An attempt is then made to deal with the principal different types of vege- 
tation found in the Union : so that instead of simply considering individual 
species detached from their surroundings we regard the plants in relation to their 
conditions of life, climate and soil and to one another ^ and as producing plant- 
societies such as forest y grass -veld ^ etc. 

Finally some biological subjects are outlined, especially nutrition (para- 
sitism, carnivory), drought resistance (succulence) and reproduction (pollinationy 
dispersal). 

It is hoped that this book, short as it is, may remind South African readers 
of the marvellous beauty and variety of their country's flora, and may strengthen 
in them the desire to respect and preserve it as one of their most valuable posses- 
sions : and that it may also give them some idea of the botanical interest which 
can be obtained from a study of the flora from other points of view than that 
of the mere naming of specimens. 



VI 



die afbeeldings. Laasgenoemde ^ en tronens die hele boek, is noodivendig 'n 
onvolledige verhandeling oor die onderwerp. 

'n Poging is vervolgens aangewend om die vernaamste soorte plantegroei 
wat in die Unie aangetref word, te bespreek : sodat, in plaas van om eenvou- 
dig die individuele soorte verwyder van hul omgewing te behandel, ons die plante 
beskou in hul verhouding tot hul lewensomstandighede , die klimaat en grond 
en tot mekaar, asook uit die oogpunt van die daarstelling van plantgenootskappe 
soos bosse, grasveld] ens. 

Ten besluite word enige plantkundige onderwerpe uiteengesit, veral voeding 
(parasitisme , karnivoriteit) , bestandheid teen droogte (sappigheid) en voort- 
planting (bestuiwing, verspreiding). 

Die hoop word uitgespreek dat hierdie bundel, kort soos dit is, Suid- 
Afrikaanse Users aan die grootse prag en verskeidenheid van ons land se 
plantegroei sal herinner en by hulk die begeerte sal versterk om dit te bewonder 
en dit as een van hul waardevolste besittinzs te bewaar : en dat dit ook aan 
hulle 'n idee kan gee van die belangstelling wat opgewek kan word deur 'n studie 
van die plantegroei uit ander gesigspunte as die van blote toekenning van name 
aan plantesoorte. 




'lfá 



VII 



(e®S^!PÍElí3^: 



FOREWORD 



P a o e iv 



CHAPTER ONE where did the south African flora come from ? Page i 

CHAPTER TWO classification of the south African flora Page 17 

CHAPTER THREE types of south African vegetation Page 47 

forests: the society of trees and 

their undergrowth - - - - Page 51 

scrub : THE society of bushes and their companions Page 57 
karoo, semi-desert and desert : the societies of 

THIRSTLAND - - - - - - - - P a e Gt, 

grassland: the illimitable veld Page 69 

SAVANNAH AND BUSHVELD : THE PARKLIKE WILDERNESS Page 75 

OTHER TYPES OF VEGETATION Page 81 

CHAPTER FOUR how some of our plants live Page 89 



ÍFIÍJÍLIL IP^OÍI aíLÍLIÍJil'ÍEIil'a® 



Giant Protea 
Belladonna Lelie 
Haemanthus katherinae 

Nerina 



Protea cynaroides 

Amaryllis belladonna 

Haemanthus katherinae 

Nerine sarniensis 



Reuse Suikerbos 

Belladonna Lily 

Haemanthus katherinae 

Nerina 



VIII 



aiíïSKDIÍJID 



1 N L E 1 D I N G 



Bladsy v 



HOOFSTUK EEN 



WAARVANDAAN HET DIE S UI D- AFR I K A ANSE 
PLANTEGROE] GEKOM? - - . - Bladsy 2 



HOOFSTUK TWEE klasstftkasie van die sutd-afrikaanse plantegroei Bladsy i8 

HOOFSTUK DRIE tipes van suid-afrikaanse plantegroei Biadsy 48 

bosse: die genootskap van bome en 

HULSTRUIKGEWASSE - - - - - BJadsy 52 



struikgewasse : die genootskap van bossies en hul 

MATERS --------- 

karoo, HALF-WOESTYN en V/OESTYN ; DIE 

genootskappe van die dorsland 



Bladsy 58 
Bladsy 64 



grasveld: die eindelose vlakte Bladsy 70 

savanna en bos veld : DIE parkagtige wtldernis Bladsy 76 

ANDER tipes VAN PLANTEGROEI B ladsy %Z 

HOOFSTUK VIER hoe sommige van ons plantesoorte leef Bladsy 90 



W®ÍL ©ÍL^©-Í?ÍLI^^Í1 



Kalkoentjie 
Red Disa 
Sour Figs 
Brunia Stokoet 



Gladiolus alafus 

Disa uniflora 

Alesemhryanthemum spp. 

Brunia stokoei 



Kalkoentjie 

Rooi Disa 

Vygies 

Brunia Stokoei 



IX 



aiLíLiigiriE^^a®s^ 



ÍPIL^^ÍlíL^: 



NO. 



5 

' 4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
lo 

II 



12 

13 
14 

15 

i6 

17 
i8 

19 

20 

21 
22 

25 
24 
25 
26 

,*7 
.28 

29 

30 
31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
40 

41 
42 
43 

44 

45 
46 



Kafir Bread Tree 
WiLLOwMORE Cypress 
Red Top Grass 
Yellow Arum Lily 
Agapanthus 
Bitter Aloe 
Gloriosa superba 
Red Hot Poker 
Lachenalia tricolor 
Chincherinchees 



Encephalartos Altensteinii 

Widdringtonia Schwart^ii 

Rhynchelytrum re pens 

Richardia Elliottana 

Agapanthus umbellatus 

Aloe ferox 

Gloriosa superba 

Kniphofia alooides 

Lachenalia tricolor 

Ornithogalum spp. 



Broodboom 

Willowmore-Sapree 

Rhynchelytrum repens 

Geel Varklelie 

Agapanthus umbellatus 

Alwyn 

Gloriosa superba 

VUURPYL 

Klipbelletjie 
Ornithogalum spp. 



Wachendorffia thyrsiflora Wachendorffia thyrsiflora 

Wachendorffia thyrsiflora 

Crinum campamdatum 

Cyrtanthus ohliquus 

Nerine appendictdata 

Babiana spp. 

Gladiolus Bolusii var. Burchellii 



Water Crinum 

Sore Eye Flower 

Nerina 

Babiana spp. 

Riversdale Bluebell 

Ixias 

Peacock Flower 

Tritonias 

Crane Flower 

Drip Disa 

Swamp Disa 

polystachya pubescens 

Silver Tree 

Leucadendron discolor 

Pincushions 

Leucospermum reflexum 

MiMETES LYRIGERA 

Marsh Rose 
Big Woolly Protea 
BoT River Protea 
Protea grandiceps 
Blushing Bride 
Sour Figs 
Stone Plant 
Water Lily 
Cape Anemone 
Wild Stock 
Cotyledon orbiculata 
Red Crassula 
Berzelia abrotanifolia 
Pride of de Kaap 
Bush Tea 

Erythrina Humeana 
Mountain Dahlia 
Silver Pea 



Crinum campanulatum 

Justifina 

Nerine appendiculata 

Bobbejaantjies 

Riversdal-Bakpypie 



Ixia spp. 

Morea villosa 

Tritonia spp. 

Strelit^ia Reginae 

Disa longicornu 

Disa racemosa 

Polystachya pubescens 

Leucadendron argenteum 

Leucadendron discolor 

Leucospermum nutans 

Leucospermum reflexum 

Mimetes lyrigera 

Orothamnus Zeyheri 

Protea barbioera 

Protea compacta 

Protea grandiceps 

Serruria florida 

Mesembryanthemum spp. 

Lithops Lesliei 

Nymphaea stellata 

Anemone capensis 

Brachycarpaea varians 

Cotyledon orbiculata 

Rochea coccinea 

Ber:(elia abrotanifolia 

Bauhinia Galpinii 

Cyclopia genistoides 

Erythrina Humeana 

Liparia spherica 

Priestleya villosa 



Kalossies 

UlLTJIES 

Rooi kalossies 

Geel Piesang 

Drupdisa 

Vleidisa 

Polystachya pubescens 

WiTTEBOOM 

Leucadendron discolor 

LUISIES 

Leucospermum reflexum 

Stompie 

Orothamnus Zeyheri 

Groot Wollerige Suikerbos 

botrivier-suikerbos 

Protea grandiceps 

Trots van Franschhoek 

Vygies 

toontjie 

Waterlelie 

Anemoon 

Blou Riet 

hondeoor 

Keiserskroon 

KOLKOL 

Bauhinia Galpinii 

Heuningtee 

Erythrina Humeana 

Geelkop 

Priestleya villosa 



PAGE 

I 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 
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27 
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32 

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46 



X 



NO. 








page 


47 


PSORALEA APHYLLA 


Psoralea aphylla 


Bloukeur 


47 


48 


Cancer Bush 


Sutherlandia frufescem 


Gansies 


48 


49 


Scarlet Geranium 


Pelargonium inquinans 


Rooi Malva 


49 


50 


Yellow Sorrel 


Oxalis pes caprae 


Geel Suring 


50 


51 


Purple Sorrel 


Oxalis purpurea 


Rooi Suring 


51 


52 


Adenandra Fragrans 


Adenandra fragrans 


Klipsissie 


52 


53 


Chinese Lanterns 


Nymania capensis 


Klapperbos 


53 


54 


POLYGALA VIRGATA 


Polygala virgata 


Bloukappie 


54 


55 


Wild Bottlebrush 


Greyia Sutherlandii 


Baakhout 


55 


56 


Hibiscus diversifolius 


Hibiscus diversifolius 


Hibiscus diversifolius 


56 


57 


Natal Redwood 


Ochna natalitia 


ROOIHOUT 


57 


58 


Wild Begonia 


Begonia Sutherlandii 


Begonia Sutherlandii 


58 


59 


Dais cotinifolia 


Dais cotinifolia 


Kannabast 


^9 


> 


Mealie Heath 


Erica abietina 


Mielie-Heide 


60 


61 


Erica axilliflora 


Erica axilliflora 


Erica axilliflora 


61 


%z 


Lantern Heath 


Erica blenna 


Riversdal-Heide 


62 


.63 


Erica foliacea 


Erica foliacea 


Erica foliacea 


63 


64 


Prince of Wales Heath 


Erica perspicua 


Veerheide 


64 


65 


Elim Heath 


Erica regia 


Belletjieheide 


65 


66 


Erica subdivaricata 


Erica subdivaricata 


Erica subdivaricata 


66 


>7 


Erica viridipurpurea 


Erica viridipurpurea 


Bosluisblom 


67 


68 


Plumbago 


Plumbago capensis 


Plumbago capensis 


68 


69 


Pink Statice 


Statice rosea 


Strandroos 


69 


70 


Wild Jasmine 


Jasminum tortuosum 


Wilde Jasmyn 


70 


71 


Sebaea exacoides 


Sebaea exacoides 


Sebaea exacoides 


71 


72 


Strophanthus speciosus 


Strophanthus speciosus 


Strophanthus speciosus 


72 


73 


Ceropegia ampliata 


Ceropegia ampliata 


Ceropegia ampliata 


73 


74 


Carrion Flower 


Stapelia Schin^ii 


Aasblom 


74 


75 


Cape Forget-me-not 


Anchusa riparia 


YSTERGRAS 


75 


76 


Minaret Flower 


Leonotis Leonurus 


Wilde Dagga 


76 


77 


Plectranthus saccatus 


Plectranthus saccatus 


Plectrai^hus saccatus 


77 


78 


DiASCTA CAPSULARIS 


Diascia capsularis 


Diascia capsularis 


78 


79 


Harveya Bolusii 


Harveya Bolusii 


Harveya Bolusii 


79 


80 


Nemesia 


Nemesia strumosa 


Leeubekkies 


80 


>^ 


Sutera grandiflora 


Sutera grandiflora 


Sutera grandiflora 


81 


82 


Port St. Johns Creeper 


Podranea Ricasoliana 


Port St. Johns-Klimop 


82 


83 


Wild Pomegranate 


Phigo'^^um obovatum 


Driedoring 


83 


84 


Kafir Honeysuckle 


Tecomaria capensis 


Kaffer-Kamperfoelie 


84 


85 


Sesame 


Sesamum capense 


Sesam 


85 


86 


Streptocarpus multiflorus 


Streptocarpus multiflorus 


Streptocarpus multiflorus 


86 


87 


Mackaya 


Mackaya bella 


Mackaya bella 


87 


88 


Alberta magna 


Alberta magna 


Alberta magna 


88 


89 


Wild Pomegranate 


Burchellia capensis 


BUFFELSHORING 


89 


90 


Gardenia 


Gardenia Thunbergii 


Katjiepiering 


90 


91 


Scabious 


Scabiosa columbaria 


Scabiosa columbaria 


9^ 


92 


Blue Lobelia 


Lobelia pinifolia 


Blou Lobelia 


92 


93 


ROELLA CILIATA 


Roella ciliata 


Roella ciliata 


93 


94 


Marigold 


Arctotis spp. 


Gousblom 


94 


95 


Wild Aster 


A-Ster fruticulosus 


Wilde Aster 


95 


96 


Blue Daisy 


Charieis heterophylla 


Blou Madeliefie 


96 


97 


Athanasia trifurcata 


Athanasia trifurcata 


Klaas Louwbos 


97 


98 


Barberton Daisy 


Gerbera Jamesonii 


Gerbera Jamesonii 


98 


99 


Everlasting 


Phoenocoma prolifera 


Sewejaartjie 


99 


100 


Ursinia anethoides 


Ursinia anethoides 


Ursinia anethoides 


100 



XI 



® ItJ Si 



©lU^Sl aíFíliIÏ(BI^S3 ÍFÍL®!^^ 



^Li/nere did iiie Cyoulk }^J~ljrt^ 
Clylora conae jroiaa / 



rtccin 



No. 1 

KAFIR BREAD TREE. 

BROODBOOM. 

ENCEPHALARTOS ALTENSTEINII. 



IN South Africa we live in the midst of vegetation distinct in many ways 
from that which grows in any other country. 
We ourselves — those of us who are Europeans — are more or less 
recent immigrants from other countries, and we have brought with us or 
imported a large number of plants which serve us for useful purposes — timber 
trees from Europe, America and Australia, decorative garden plants, fruits, 
vegetables, cereals from all over the world. These plants, like ourselves, are 
newcomers to an ancient land, and their introduction is a matter of modern 
history. But what, we ask, is the history of the plants which were here before 
us — plants which astonished 
and delighted the eyes of the 
earliest Europeans to visit this 
country, and for the most part 
unlike anything they had seen 
before, though a few seemed 
slightly familiar ? Whence 
came these indigenous plants, 
so characteristic of South Africa 
and yet, as closer study 
revealed, showing definite 
similarities to plants of certain 
other countries ? Let us 
examine this question and con- 
sider what is the nature of the 
resemblances between the 




Page I 



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Myaarvandaan íiel die C2)uicl^KydjrtKí 
planíegroeí ^ekowi / 



aanse 



No. 2 

WILLOWMORE-SAPREE. 

WILLOWMORE CYPRESS, 

WIDDRINGTONIA SCHWARTZII. 



ÍN Suid-Af f ika lewe ons te midde van plantegroei wat in baie opsigte verskil 
van die wat in enige ander land aangetref word. 
Ons self — diegene van ons wat blankes is — is immigrante wat maar 
kort gelede uit ander lande verhuis het, en ons liet 'n groot aantal plante met 
ons saamgebring of ingevoer wat vir nuttige doeleindes gebruik word — timmer- 
houtbome uit Europa, Amerika en Australië, sierplante, vrugte, groente, graan- 
soorte van oor die hele wêreld. Net soos ons, is hierdie plante nuwe aankome- 
linge in 'n ou wêreld-deel en hul aankoms behoort tot die moderne geskiedenis. 
Maar wat is die geskiedenis van die plante wat hier was voor ons, vra ons — 

plante waardeur die oë van die 
vroegste blankes wat ons land 
besoek het, betower is, deur- 
dat huUe verskil het van enig- 
iets wat huUe tot dusver gesien 
het, hoewel 'n paar soorte 'n 
bietjie bekend gelyk het. 
Waarvandaan het hierdie in- 
heemse plante gekom, wat so 
kenmerkend van Suid-Afrika 
is, en wat na nouer ondersoek 
geblyk het om definitief in 
sekere opsigte met die plante 
uit ander lande ooreen te 
stem ? Laat ons op hierdie 
vraag ingaan en die aard van 




Bladsy 




South African flora and those of other 
countries, and in what ways it is distinct ; 
and let us try to find the explanation. 

Take the great Protea family, so 

_^_ ^ characteristic a feature of the coastal belt 

^^^^ V^ij *^ ^^ ^^^ ^^P^ Province. Travel eastwards 

^^ >^R ^Ý i across the Indian Ocean and we find 

.^^^R "vt.*^ ^sá obvious relatives of the Proteas in 

>^ « / ^^^ Australia ; travel westwards across the 

Atlantic and we find others in South 
America. Or take the Ericas or Heaths : 
there are hundreds of species of them in 
the Cape Province, and, thousands of miles 
away, there are a few species in the 
Mediterranean region and some that colour 
the moors purple in northern Europe, the 
connecting link being a thin sprinkling of 
them along the high mountains of Central 
Africa. (Incidentally, we may note that 
there are no representatives of the Erica 
family in Australia nor of the Protea family in Europe.) If we go to India or 
Ceylon we see tree Euphorbias very similar to those of the Eastern Cape or the 
Transvaal. Our Stinkwood Tree has large numbers of close relations in South 
America. The thorn-bushes which cover thousands of square miles of the 
Union are obviously related, as we can see from their flowers, to those recent 
arrivals from Australia, the wattles. 

Every^^here one sees similarities between the South African flora and the 
floras of other countries, east, west, north and even south (for the Antarctic 
Continent had its own flora, as the fossils show, when its climate was mild.) 

To the botanist the resemblances between the South African plants and those 
of other countries are explainable as the results of migration — the travelling of 
plants over the surface of the globe. 

To some people this may be difficult to understand. They think that one 
of the chief differences between an animal and a plant is that an animal can move, 
whereas a plant is stationary, rooted to the ground. Yet, on the whole, plants 
are more mobile than animals owing to the various means they have of distributing 
their seeds far and wide by wind, rivers, ocean currents, and so on ; and also 
by the fact that chance migrations of animals are checked by the need for two 



No. 3 

RED TOP GRASS. 
RHYNCHELYTRUM REPENS. 



Page 5 



die ooreenstemming asook die verskille tussen die Suid-Afrikaanse plantegroei 
en die van ander lande opweeg ; en laat ons dan 'n uitleg probeer gee. 

Neem die groot protea-familie wat so 'n uitstaande kenmerk van die kus- 
streke van die Kaapprovinsie is. Reis in 'n oostelike rigting oor die Indie se 
Oseaan, en u sal klaarblyklike verwantes van die protea in Australië aantref ; 
reis weswaarts oor die Atlantiese Oseaan, en u sal verwante plante in Suid- 
Amerika aantref. Of neem die erica of heide ; daar is honderde vertakkinge 
daarvan in die Kaapprovinsie, en duisende myle ver is daar 'n paar soorte in die 
Mediterrane gebied en 'n reeks wat die veenstreke pers kleur in Noord-Europa — 
die verbindende skakel waarvan 'n ylerige verspreiding is wat op die hoe berge 
van Midde-Afrika groei. (Terloops kan ons daarop wys dat daar geen verteen- 
woordigers van die ericoïede-familie in Australië of van die protea-fam'lie in 
Europa is nie.) As ons na Indie of Ceylon gaan, sal ons daar borne behorende 
tot die euphorbia-soort aantref, wat 'n bale nou verwantskap toon met die van 
die Oostelike Kaap of die Transvaal. Ons stinkhoutboom het 'n groot aantal 
nou verwante soorte in Suid-Amerika. Die doringbome wat duisende vierkante 
myle van die Unie bedek, is volgens hul blomme te oordeel klaarblyklik aan 
daardie onlangse aankomelinge van Australia, die wattelboom, verwant. 

Orals bemerk 'n mens verwante eien- 
skappe tussen die Suid-Afrikaanse plante- 
lewe en die van ander lande in die ooste 
die weste, die noorde en selfs die suide 
(aangesien die Suidpoolstreek sy eie plante- 
groei gehad het, volgens fossiele daar 
ontdek, toe die klimaat daarvan gematigd 
was). 

Die plantkundiges verklaar die ver- 
wante eienskappe van die Suid-Afrikaanse 
plante en die van ander lande as synde die 
gevolg van verhuising — die verspreiding 
van plante oor die oppervlakte van die 
aardbol. 

Vir sommige mense is hierdie opvat- 
ting moeilik om te begryp. Hulle meen dat 
een van die vernaamste verskille tussen 'n 
dier en 'n plant beweeglikheid is, d.w.s. 
dat 'n dier hom kan beweeg oor die aarde, 
terwyl 'n plant in die grond vasgeanker is. 



No. 4 

GEEL VARKLELIE. 

YELLOW ARUM LILY. 

RICHARDIA ELLIOTTANA. 




vA-^ 



Bladsy 4 




No. 5 

AGAPANTHUS. 
AGAPANTHUS UMBELLATUS. 



individuals, male and female, to propagate 
the race, whereas plants which are so often 
bisexual, are frequently independent of 
limitations of this kind. 

If, therefore, we find the same or 
related plants in separate localities, close or 
distant, we usually conclude that migration 
must have taken place from one locality 
to the other or vice versa, or from some 
common origin to both. 

Now, migration is a very slow process 
as a rule, in a state of Nature. It is true that 
many instances are known of the very 
rapid spread of a plant after it has entered 
a new country. Some of our noxious weeds 
come to mind in which a species has been 
spread over hundreds of miles of country 
in a few years or in a generation or two. 
But such plants as these are almost always 
assisted in spreading by human agency — 
by agriculture, veld burning, grazing, transport of forage and stock, etc. 

Plants which are not capable of being helped in such ways as these usually 
travel very slowly. For instance. Silver Trees grow in the Cape Peninsula and 
25 miles away, near Somerset West. Let us suppose that the intervening Cape 
Flats provided suitable ground for the growth of Silver Trees — ^which is not 
the case to-day whatever it may have been in past ages. Let us also observe 
that a Silver Tree starts to produce seeds at about ten years old and that the 
seeds can seldom be scattered more than ten yards from the parent tree. Then 
a little arithmetic will show that the migration of Silver Trees from the Peninsula 
to Somerset West (if that is the way it happened) must have taken something 
like 45,000 years to accomplish, and probably a good deal more. The same 
arguments apply more or less to all the plants composing the flora. 

Many species have a vastly greater range than the Silver Tree. Others have 
an even smaller range. Our well-known Red Erica, for instance, extends 
from Cape Point right through Africa to the mountains of Abyssinia, say 4,000 
miles. Another Erica, Fair's Heath, is confined to an acre or two in the Glencairn 
Mountains. Generally speaking, the longer a plant has had to migrate the 
further it will have reached ; and, conversely, we come to the conclusion that 



Page 5 



Tog is plante meet beweeglik as diere, omdat daar verskillende maniere is waarop 
hulle bul saad kan versprei, soos by voorbeeld deur die wind, riviere, seestromings, 
ens. Boonop is die moontlikheid van die verspreiding van diere van twee van hul 
soort, naamlik mannetjie en wyfie, afhanklik om voortplanting te verseker, 
terwyl plante wat so dikwels tweeslagtig is, vrygestel is van sulke beperkings. 

In die natuur vind verspreiding gewoonlik baie stadig plaas. Dit is waar 
dat daar baie voorbeelde bestaan van waar 'n plant baie vinnig versprei het 
nadat dit in 'n nuwe land posgevat het. In hicrdie verband dink ons aan sommige 
soorte onkruid wat binne 'n paar jaar of binne 'n geslag of twee oor honderde 
myle versprei geraak het. Die verspreiding van hierdie soort plante is egter byna 
altyd toe te skryf aan menslike tussenkoms in verband met landbou, soos veld- 
brande, weiding, die vervoer van voer en vee, ens. 

Plante waarvan die verspreiding nie op sulke maniere gehelp word nie, 
versprei gewoonlik baie stadig. Silwerbome groei by voorbeeld in die Kaapse 
Skiereiland en ook naby Somerset- Wes, 25 myl ver. Laat ons veronderstel dat 
die grond van die tusseninliggende Kaapse Vlakte geskik was vir silwerbome — 
wat nie vandag die geval is nie, hoewel dit die geval in die verlede kon gewees 
het : laat ons ook daarop let dat 'n silwerboom op die ouderdom van ongeveer 

tien jaar begin saad skiet en dat die saad 
selde of ooit meer as tien tree van die 
ouerboom versprei word. Deur van 'n 
bietjie rekenkunde gebruik te maak, sal ons 
sien dat die verspreiding van silwerbome 
van die Skiereiland na Somerset- Wes (as 
dit die manier is waarop dit plaasgevind 
het) sowat 45,000 jaar en waarskynlik 
heelwat langer in beslag moes geneem het. 
Dieselfde argument geld min of meer vir 
alle plante wat blomme dra. 

Baie soorte versprei oor baie groter 
afstande as die silwerboom ; ander soorte 
versprei nie eens so ver nie. Ons bekende 
Rooi Erica word by voorbeeld van Kaap- 
punt d wars deur Afrika tot aan die berge 
van Abessinië, 'n af stand van sowat 
4,000 myl, aangetref. Nog 'n Ericoïede, 
Fair's Heath, is tot 'n akker of twee in 
die Glencairn-berg beperk. 



No. 6 

ALWYN. 

BITTER ALOE. 

ALOE FEROX. 




Bladsy 6 




No. 7 

GLORIOSA SUPERBA. 



the Red Erica is á very old species, whereas 
Fair's Heath is probably a relatively young 
one, which has not yet had time to spread 
very far. 

When we consider such plants as the 
Protea family, present in all three continents 
of the Southern Hemisphere, it is clear 
that we must allow millions of years for 
them to accomplish their migrations, 
changing gradually as they travelled and 
producing all the great number of different 
forms which we call the Protea family 
to-day. 

We have to remember, too, that from 
the point of view of the history of the 
plant Hngdom the flowering plants of to- 
day are relatively modern. It is true that 
they seem to go back for some thirty 
million years at least, but this is only a 
fraction of the total history of the plant 
world on this planet. Before the flowering plants originated and spread over 
the earth's surface other forms of plant life covered the ground. There was 
the age of the fern-like seed-plants, the age of the giant horsetails and clubmosses, 
the age of the primitive ferns, the age of simple algae living in the ocean before 
the emergence of life, animal and plant, from the sea on to the dry land took place. 
Some relics of these incredibly remote times persist with us to-day. Our 
well-known Cycads or Kafir Bread Trees (Fig. i) are of enormous antiquity. 
They occur in the Eastern Province and Cape Midlands and extend through Natal, 
Zululand and the Transvaal to the Congo and the Gold Coast on the west and to 
Zanzibar and the Sudan on the east. Closely similar, though distinct, Cycads 
exist in other temperate and tropical parts of the world. 

Nothing could be more slow and deliberate than the Cycads — slow in 
growth, slow in coming to maturity, slow in distribution. How have they 
spread from continent to continent, separated by vast spaces of ocean ? The 
answer may lie in the wonderful theory propounded by Wegener — the theory 
of floating continents. Far back in the world's history, though after the Cycads 
had appeared, the southern continents were clustered together in one vast 
unbroken land mass. Then the Cycads and other prehistoric flora and fauna 



Page 7 




/\ 



BELLADONNA LELIE 



BELLADONNA LILY 



AMARYLLIS BELLADONNA 



■.>*>ssti 



HmÊm 




BELLADONNA LELIE 



BELLADONNA LILY 



AMARYLLIS BELLADONNA 



Amaryllis Belladonna, the Belladonna Lily, is a flower universally known and 
loved. The leaves are produced in the winter, but die off at the beginning 
of summer : the flowers rise from the bulb about March. Their colour is 
pink of various shades, and they have a strong and characteristic odour. 
It is locally abundant in the scrub of the South- Western Cape, and has been 
much planted in gardens. 

Amaryllis Belladonna, die Belladonnalelie, is 'n blom wat algemeen bekend 
is en bjrval vind. Die blare bot in die winter maar sterf aan die begin van 
die somer : die blomme spruit om en by Maart-maand uit die bol. Hul 
kleur is 'n afwisselende soort ligroos en hulle besit 'n sterk en kenmerkende 
geur. Dit word plaaslik in oorvloed tussen die struikgewasse van Suidwes- 
Kaapland aangetref en is op 'n groot skaal in tuine gekweek. 



I 




As ons sulke plante soos die Protea- 
familie in ag neem, wat aanwesig is in 
aldrie wêreld-dele van die suidelike half- 
rond, is dit duidelik dat ons miljoene 
jare vir hulle moet toelaat waarin hulle 
hulseif kon versprei het, gedurende welke 
tyd hulle geleidelik 'n gedaanteverwisseling 
ondergaan en die groot aantal verskeiden- 
hede wat ons vandag as die Protea-familie 
bestempel, as gevolg gehad het. 

Ons moet ook onthou dat uit die 
oogpunt van die geskiedenis van die 
planteryk die hedendaagse blomplante 
betreldik jonk is. Dit is waar dat dit 
skyn asof hulle minstens dertigmiljoen jaar 
gelede begin het, dog dit is slegs 'n grepie 
uit die totale geskiedenis van die plantlewe 
op hierdie planeet. 

Voordat die blomplante begin bestaan 
en oor die oppervlakte van die aarde 
versprei het, het ander vorms van plantlewe die aarde bedek. Daar was die 
tydperk van die varingagtige saadplante ; die tydperk van die reuse perdesterte 
en knuppelmossoorte ; die tydperk van die primitiewe varings ; die tydperk 
van eenvoudige seewiere wat in die oseaan aanwesig was voordat diere- en 
plantlewe van uit die see na droë grond oorgeplant is. 

'n Aantal oorblyfsels uit hierdie ongelooflik verafgeleë oertyd is vandag 
te bespeur, soos by voorbeeld ons welbekende Cycadeë of Kaiferbroodbome 
(Afb. i). Hulle word in die Oostelike Provinsie en die Kaapse Middellande 
aangetref en is versprei oor Natal, Zoeloeland en die Transvaal tot by die 
Kongo en die Goudkus in die weste en tot by Zanzibar en die Soedan in die 
ooste. Cycadeë wat na aan hulle verwant is dog afsonderlik is, bestaan in ander 
gematigde en tropiese dele van die wereld. 

Daar is seker geen vorm van plantlewe wat so stadig en tydsaam is as 
die Cycadeë nie — stadig wat betref groeikrag, stadig wat betref rypwording, 
stadig wat betref distribusie. Hoe het hulle van die een vasteland na die ander, 
oor duisende myle van oseaan heen, versprei ? Die antwoord lê miskien 
opgesluit in die wonderlike teorie deur Wegener opgestel — die teorie van 
die drywendc vastelande. Ver terug in die wereld se geskiedenis, hoewel 



No. 8 

VUURPYL. 

RED HOT POKER. 

KNIPHOFIA ALOOIDES. 



Bladsy 8 




No. 9 

KLIPBELLETJIE. 
LACHENALIA TRICOLOR. 



could wander freely from one continent 
to another without awkward jumps across 
oceans. Later on the continents split 
apart from one another and drifted off 
in their various directions, floating on the 
plastic interior of the globe : and with 
them they carried, Hke passengers on 
liners, their living cargo of plants and 
animals. 

This theory of floating continents 
does not help us with the problems of 
distribution of the flowering plants, for 
they did not appear upon the earth until 
after the southern continents had started 
to drift apart from one another. How then 
can we explain the presence of similar 
plants in widely separated localities ? 

Take the Ericas as an example. It 
seems probable that they originated some- 
where in Africa — perhaps in the moun- 
tains of Central Africa — and spread both northward into Europe and southward 
into the Cape Province, evolving new species as they travelled. We can picture 
that the ones which reached Europe were the tougher species, more hardy in 
severe climates and quite limited in numbers. The ones that came south were, 
so to speak, tourists attracted by the well-known South African climate, which, 
together with our soils, they found very much to their liking : they proceeded 
to settle here and to evolve in the Cape coastal belt the vast number of beautiful 
species which are so characteristic a part of its flora. There was no great difficulty 
about this migration up and down Africa, for the continent has had an unbroken 
land surface for long ages, and the difficulties which a tropical climate might 
cause in Central Africa are got over by the presence of high mountains with a 
climate more to an Erica's liking. 

The Protea family presents a different and somewhat harder problem. 
On the one hand it is so definitely southern in its distribution, and on the other 
the southern continents in which it occurs are so widely separated by ocean that 
any explanation must necessarily appear rather far-fetched. But it seems probable 
that Antarctica must have been part of the area inhabited by the Protea family 
at some warmer period, and that land connections between it and the southern 



Page 9 



na die verskyning van die Cycadeë, was die suidelike vastelande as een, 
oneindige, ononderbroke landmassa met mekaar verbind. Toe kon die 
Cycadee en ander voor-historiese plantegroei en dieresoorte vryelik van die een 
vasteland na die ander, sender veeleisende spronge oor oseane, beweeg. Later 
het die vastelande ontstaan deur afsplitsing en in hul verskeie rigtings beweeg 
en op die plastiese binnenste van die aardbol gedrywe, en saam met huUe het 
hulle, soos passasierskepe hul passasiers vervoer, hul lewende vrag bestaande 
uit plante en diere meegevoer. 

Hierdie teorie van die drywende vastelande is nie vir ons tot hulp in verband 
met die vraagstukke insake die verspreiding van die blomplante nie, aangesien 
hulle nie op die aarde verskyn het totdat die suidelike vastelande van mekaar 
begin wegdryf het nie. Hoe kan ons dan die teenwoordigheid van soortgelyke 
plante op plekke ver van mekaar geleë verklaar ? 

Neem byvoorbeeld die Ericas. Dit skyn asof hulle iewers in Afrika — 
miskien op die berge van Midde- Afrika — hul oorsprong gehad en noordwaarts 
na Europa en suidwaarts tot binne die Kaapprovinsie versprei en nuwe vertak- 
kinge in die proses van verspreiding as gevolg gehad het. Ons kan ons voorstel 
dat die soorte wat Europa bereik het, die geharder soorte was, wat bestand was 

teen die veeleisende klimaatsomstandighede 
en waarvan die aantal beperk was. Die 
soorte wat suidwaarts gekom het, was 
toeriste, om dit so te stel, wat gelok is 
deur die welbekende Suid-Afrikaanse 
Idimaat, wat hulle tesame met ons grond 
bale na hul sin gevind het : hulle het 
voorts hier posgevat en langs die kusstreke 
die groot aantal pragtige soorte ontwikkel 
wat so kenmerkend van die reeks blom- 
soorte is. Daar was geen moeilikheid 
in hierdie proses van verspreiding op en 
af langs Afrika nie, aangesien hierdie 
vasteland al eeue lank 'n ononderbroke 
land-oppervlakte het, en die moeilikhede 
wat 'n tropiese klimaat in Midde-Afrika 
mag veroorsaak deur die teenwoordigheid 
van hoe berge, met 'n klimaat meer in 
ooreenstemming met die Erica se geaard- 
heid, oorbrug word. Die Protea-familie 



No. 10 

CHINCHERINCHEES. 
ORNITHOGALUM SPP. 




Bladsy lo 



continents must have existed: these have now disapppeared, but whether this 
was caused by subsidence, the erosion of continental margins, the floating apart 
of continents or some other process can only be guessed at present. 

Other problems of geographical distribution may be hinted at, each one of 
them demanding an explanation. Our Rooi Els tree has its nearest relations in 
the Pacific island of New Caledonia. Our Stinkwood has a related species in 
tropical Africa, and others in the Mascarene Islands, but most of them are in 
tropical America. Kissenia in South- West Africa has its only other relatives in 
Arabia. Parkinsonia, also in South- West Africa, has one other species in India 
and a few others in California and Arizona. Most of the distributions follow 
" normal " patterns and are capable of reasonable explanations : others seem 
entirely freakish. But they all show the relationships which the South African 
flora bears to the floras of other countries, some close and regular, others 
exceptional. 

Plants have come into South Africa from all sides, and within this country 
they migrate about wherever opportunity offers. We can trace streams of 
migration in some cases, so that, for instance, the forests of Table Mountain 
appear to be the advance guard of a mass movement of forest trees from tropical 

Africa down through Natal and the Knysna 
region into the Cape Peninsula. 

But the migration of plants from 
other countries into South Africa is only 
part of the story, and only explains the 
resemblances which our flora bears to 
that of other countries. How are we to 
account for the differences ? The Protea 
family occurs in Australia, New Zealand, 
some of the Pacific Islands and South 
America as well as in South Africa, and 
this may be explained by migration along 
ancient land connections. But the actual 
Proteas (Figs. 30-32), Leucospermums (Figs. 
26, 27), Serrurias (Fig. 33), Orothamnus 
(Fig. 29) and so on that we know so well 
occur only in Africa : and the most 
reasonable explanation of this is that they 
have come into existence here since the 
land connections with other southern 



No. 11 

WACHENDORFFIA THYRSIFLORA. 




Page 



II 




verteenwoordig 'n verskillende en ietwat 
neteliger vraagstuk. Aan die een kant is hy 
so beslis suidelik wat betref distribusie, en 
aan die anderkant is die suidelike vasteland 
waarop dit aangetref word deur sulke 
groot afstande seewater geskei dat enige 
verduideliking noodwendig as. vergesog 
beskou moet word. Dog dit lyk waar- 
skynlik dat die Suidpoolstreek deel van 'n 
gebied moes gewees het wat in 'n warmer 
tydperk deur die Protea-familie begroei 
moes gewees liet en dat landverbindings 
tussen hom en die suidelike vastelande 
moes bestaan het ; hulle het nou verdwyn, 
maar of dit veroorsaak is deur uitsakking, 
die verspoeling van die kusstreke van vaste- 
lande, die wegdrywe van vastelande of 
deur 'n ander proses kan slegs gegis word. 

Ander vraagstukke in verband met 
aardrykskundige distribusie kan geopper 
word, elkeen waarvan 'n verduideliking vereis. Die meeste van die distribusies 
volg 'n „normale" gang van sake en kan aanneemlik uitgelê word ; ander 
skyn volkome „grillerig" te wees. Maar hulle openbaar almal die verwantskappe 
wat daar bestaan tussen die Suid-Afrikaanse plantlewe en die van ander lande, 
sommige waarvan nou en gereeld, en ander waarvan bale afwykend is. 

Plante het na Suid-Afrika van alle kante binnegekom en binne Suid-Afrika 
trek hulle rond sodra die geleentheid hom voordoen. Ons kan strome van sulke 
oorplanting in sommige gevalle vasstel, sodat dit by voorbeeld skyn asof die 
bosse van Tafelberg die voorlopers is van 'n massaverhuising van bosbome uit 
tropiese Afrika deur Natal en die Knysna-gebied tot in die Kaapse Skiereiland. 

Maar die verspreiding van plante uit ander lande na Suid-Afrika is slegs 
deel van die verhaal en verklaar slegs die ooreenstemmende kenmerke van ons 
plantegroei met die van ander lande. Hoe moet ons die verskille verklaar ? Die 
Protea-familie kom in Australië, Nu-Seeland, sommige van die Stille See-eilande 
en Suid-Amerika, sowel as in Suid-Afrika voor, en dit kan verklaar word deur 
verspreiding langs oeroue landverbindings. Maar die werklike Proteas (Afb. 
30-32), Leucospermums (Afb. 26, 27), Serrurias (Afb. 33), Orothamnus (Afb. 29) 
ens., wat ons so goed ken, kom slegs in Afrika voor : en die aanneemlikste 



No. 12 

WATER CRINUM. 
CRINUM CAMPANULATUM. 



Bladsy 12 




continents ceased to exist. Nowadays, 
apart from human aid, our Leucospermums, 
for instance, are quite unable to cross 
the ocean to Australia, and the Australian 
Grevilleas and Banksias are similarly unable 
to come to South Africa. We may note 
that Proteas themselves appear to have 
migrated overland northward through 
Africa, one species even reaching the 
Sudan and Erytrea : but that is a very 
different matter from crossing the sea. 

How, then, did our special floral 
types originate ? To answer this question 
would be to solve the whole series of 
problems summed up in the theory — 
or, as most biologists would say, the 
fact — of evolution. 

Consider the common sugar-bush, 
Protea mellifera, well known to all South 
Africans. In the western Cape there are 
pink-flowered ones on the Cape Flats and white-flowered ones in Bain's Kloof : 
take seeds from both and grow them and they will keep true : this means that 
there is a definite hereditary difference between the two. In the eastern Cape we 
also find an unmistakable sugar-bush, but its flower-heads are a darker red, 
their shape and that of its leaves are different, and it blooms in midsummer 
instead of midwinter. Plants raised from its seeds and grown side by side with 
the western plants maintain their distinctive characters, so that it also is a definite 
hereditary type. How is it that all these different varieties of sugar-bush exist 
and keep true ? 

The answer is probably given by a phenomenon known and used by 
gardeners — the occurrence of sports or mutations. By this is meant the sudden 
production of a new variety : it may be a bud-sport such as the nectarine branch 
which occasionally appears on a peach tree ; or a seed-sport in which one or 
more of a batch of pure-bred seedlings may differ from its fellows, this being 
the origin, for instance, of most of our " double " garden flowers. These new 
types can often be selected and propagated, and so new garden varieties are 
established. The same thing may happen in nature. What causes these muta- 



No. 13 

SORE EYE FLOWER. 

JUSTIFINA. 

CYRTANTHUS OBLIQUUS. 



Page 13 



verklaring hiervan is dat hulle hier ontstaan het sedert die landverbindings met 
ander suidelike vastelande opgehou het om te bestaan. Afgesien van menslike 
tussenkoms is dit vir ons Leucospermums by voorbeeld heeltemal onmoontlik 
om die oseaan na Australië oor te steek en die Australiese Grevilleas en Banks ias 
is op dieselfde w)^se nie daartoe in staat om na Suid-Afrika te versprei nie. Ons 
kan daarop let dat dit skyn asof die Proteas self noordwaarts deur Afrika getrek 
het, sodat een soort selfs die Soedan en Eritrea bereik het : maar dit is iets 
heeltemal anders as om die see oor te steek. 

Hoe het ons spesiale blomtipes dan ontstaan ? 'n Antwoord op hierdie 
vraag sal die oplossing beteken van die hele reeks vraagstukke wat saamgevat 
word in die teorie — of, soos die meeste plantkundiges sal beweer, die feit — van 
evolusie. 

Neem by voorbeeld die bekende suikerbos, Protea mellifera, wat so goed 
bekend is aan alle Suid- Afrikaners. In \X^es-Kaapland is daar die ligrooies op 
die Kaapse Vlakte en die wittes in Bain's Kloof: neem die saad van albei en 
saai dit en hulle sal onveranderd bly : dit beteken dat daar 'n definitiewe, 
oorerflike verskil tussen die twee is. In Oos-Kaapland tref ons ook 'n onmisken- 
bare suikerbos aan dog die blomme is rooier, hul fatsoen en die van hul blare is 

verskillend en hy blom in die middel van 
die somer i.p.v. in die winter. Plante wat 
van die saad daarvan gekweek is en wat 
naas die westelike tipes groei, behou hul 
onderskeidende kenmerke, sodat dit ook 
beslis 'n oorerflike tipe is. Hoe is dit 
dat al hierdie verskillende soorte suiker- 
bosse bestaan en onveranderd bly ? 

Die antwoord le waarskynlik opge- 
sluit in 'n verskynsel wat bekend is aan en 
gebruik word deur tuiniers — die aanwesig- 
heid van afwykende vorms of mutasies. 
Hierdeur word bedoel die skielike ver- 
skyning van 'n nuwe soort : dit kan 'n 
afwykende bloeisel wees soos die kaal- 
perske-tak wat dikwels op 'n perskeboom 
verskyn ; of 'n saadafwyking waar een of 
meer klompies suiwer-gekweekte plant jies 
van hul metgeselle kan verskil, w^at die 
oorsprong by voorbeeld is van die meeste 



No. 14 

NERINA. 
NERINE APPENDICULATA. 




Bladsy 14 



tions is now beginning to be understood by botanists, and there are indications 
that it may prove possible to produce them at will. 

Let us take as another example two species of Cotyledon — the botterboom 
(,C. pankulatd) and the nentabos (C Wallkhii) of the Karoo. These two very 
distinct plants occasionally grow side by side, for instance in the Hex River 
Pass. When this happens one can always find a number of plants which are 
neither botterboom nor nentabos, but are intermediate between them. It is 
clear that this is due to hybridisation : the hybrids itt seed almost as well as 
their parents, and owing to what is called segregation of characters we get in 
subsequent generations a large number of plants slightly differing from one 
another. If any of these hybrids should breed true it might be the beginning 
of a new species different from both of its original parents. 

Hybridisation is constantly used by horticulturists as a starting point for 
the production of new cultivated varieties : and once again, what can happen 
in a garden ci^n also happen in nature. 

The gardener selects what he wants among the sports and hybrids available 
to him. Nature apparently does the same, according to the theory of the struggle 
for existence and the survival of the fit. 

Thus we have a reasonable basis 
for the theory of evolution. This process 
has been taking place among all living 
things, in South Africa as in all parts 
of the world, almost imperceptibly but 
producing far-reaching effects over vast 
periods of time. 

And so, by the combination of these 
two processes, evolution and migration, 
migration and evolution, acting and inter- 
acting through immeasurable ages. Nature 
the great horticulturist has produced 
the Flora of South Africa as we know 
it to-day. 



No. 15 

BOBBEJAANTJTES. 
BABIANA SPP. 




Page 15 




van ons „dubbele" tuinplante. Hierdie 
nuwe tipes kan dikwels uitgesoek en voort- 
geplant word, en so word nuwe tuinver- 
skeidenhede tot stand gebring. Dieselfde 
kan in die natuur gebeur. Wat liierdie 
afw}^kings veroorsaak, begin nou deur 
plantkundiges verstaan te word en daar is 
aanduidings dat dit moontlik kan blyk om 
hulle na willekeur voort te bring. 

Laat ons as verder voorbeeld neem 
twee soorte Cotyledon — die botterboom 
(C. paniculatd) en die nentabos (C WalUchïi) 
van die Karoo. Hierdie twee uiters ver- 
skillende plante groei dikwels sy aan sy, 
b.v. in die Hexrivierpas. Wanneer dit 
gebeur, sal 'n mens altyd 'n aantal plante 
aantref wat nog botterboom nog nentabos, 
maar 'n mengsel van beide is. Dit is 
duidelik dat dit aan verbastering te wyte 
is : die basterplante skiet saad byna net 
so goed soos hul ouerplante, en as gevolg van wat bekend staan as die segregasie 
van eienskappe, tref ons in later geslagte 'n groot aantal plante aan wat efFens van 
mekaar verskil. Indien enigeen van hierdie basters sy nuwe eienskappe oorerflik 
kan maak, mag dit die begin van 'n nuwe soort beteken wat verskil van albei 
oorspronklike ouerplante. 

Verbastering word gedurig deur tuinboukundiges as 'n aanvangspunt aange- 
wend om nuwe tuinsoorte te kweek : en nogeens, wat in 'n tuin kan gebeur, kan 
ook daar buite in die natuur plaasvind. 

Die tuinier kies wat hy verlang uit die beskikbare mutasies en verbasterings. 
Die natuur doen klaarblyklik dieselfde, volgens die teorie van die stryd om die 
bestaan en die oorlewing van die geskikste. Derhalwe besit ons 'n billike grond- 
slag vir die teorie van evolusie. Hierdie proses het plaasgevind onder alle lewende 
wesens, in Suid-Afrika sowel as in alle dele van die wêreld, bykans ongemerk, 
maar nogtans met verreikende gevolge oor uitgestrekte tydperke. En aldus, 
danksy die samewerking van hierdie twee prosesse, evolusie en verspreiding, 
verspreiding en evolusie, met 'n uitwerking en 'n onderlinge uitwerking van die 
een plant op die ander deur onmeetlike tydperke heen, het die natuur, die groot 
tuinier, die plantegroei van Suid-Afrika voortgebring soos ons dit vandag ken. 



No. 16 

RIVERSDAL-BAKPYPIE. 

RIVERSDALE BLUEBELL. 

GLADIOLUS BOLUSII VAR. BURCHELLIL 



Bladsy i6 



©íËíís i®iííipía ii!?!aíí{gii!?3 íriL®!aii 




'c 



assijícaíiovi 
oj ine C2)ouin ^^/~2jrican Cylo\ 



No. 17 

IX IAS. 

KALOSSIES. 

IXIA SPP. 



EVERYBODY has observed that different kinds of plants show resemblances 
with one another which may be greater or less in degree. These 
resemblances are often reflected by their popular names. For instance, 
there are many different plants which are called Gousblom or Daisy, all of 
which are recognised as having certain features in common. Botanists studying 
these similarities with critical care have 
drawn up schemes of classification, group- 
ing together in smaller or larger classes 
those plants which show close or less close 
resemblances with one another. These 
classes they call species, genera and 
families ; and other divisions are used as 
well when needed. 

These schemes of classification may be 
regarded as an elaborate filing or indexing 
system, such as is used in any large business 
or even in such a pursuit as stamp collect- 
ing. It is largely a matter of convenience 
of reference, but it must rest on some 
fundamental principle. If we recognise 
that the similarities and differences between 
plants are not due to mere chance, and if we 
enquire why different plants have features 
in common, we are led to one of two 
explanations. One is the doctrine of special 




Page 17 



©S3 



ííÍía®-l\í?S!iaSI^^S3gíS í?ÍL^S3^ÍË(§ÍE®í^í! 



tiyXiassiJilcasic ran die C2)uid=Js/~djtiK( 



aanse 




aiiieóroei 



E 

is by 
noem 



No. 18 

UILTJIES. 

PEACOCK FLOWER. 

MOREA VILLOSA. 



LKEEN het al opgemerk dat verskillende soorte plante Ín 'n meerder 
of minder mate met mekaar ooreenstem. Hierdie punte van ooreen- 
stemming word dikwels deur hul populêre benamings weerspieël. Daar 
voorbeeld talryke verskillende plante wat gousblom of madeliefie ge- 
word, almal waarvan sekere ooreenstemmende eienskappe besit. Plant- 

kundiges wat hierdie ooreenstemmende 
kenmerke met loritiese aandag bestudeer, 
het klassifiseringskemas ontwerp waar- 
volgens daardie plante wat 'n meer of 
minder noue ooreenstemming met mekaar 
openbaar, in kleiner of groter klasse 
gegroepeer word. Hierdie Idasse noem 
hulle soorte, geslagte en families ; en 
ander indelings word ook gebesig indien 
dit vereis word. 

Hierdie klassifiseringskemas kan as 

'n ingewikkelde rangskikkingstelsel be- 

skou word, soos die wat in swang is 

in enige groot saak of selfs in verband 

met liefhebberye soos die versamel van 

seels ; dit is grotendeels 'n saak van 

T^áÉj maklike opsporing, maar dit moet op 'n 

^H^^^H sekere fundament ele beginsel berus. As 

JlJjjf^^JIJIJIJI ons besef dat die ooreenstemmings en 

afwyldngs nie bloot aan toeval te wyte 




Bladsy i8 



creation according to some basic plan ; 
the other is the principle of evolution. 
According to this latter theory, which is 
the one almost universally accepted by 
biologists, the similarities between plants 
mean that they are related to one another 
by descent and have a common ancestry ; the 
differences mean that they have changed in 
the course of innumerable generations. 
The word " families," which was used 
above, alludes to this idea of relationship. 

Botanists, therefore, in classifying 
plants are trying to arrange them in groups 
according to their natural relationships, 
as deduced from their resemblances, and 
they endeavour to make the filing system 
that they use an expression of evolutionary 
or family history. This branch of the 
science is known as Systematic Botany. 

Many different schemes of classifica- 
tion have been devised, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. In the 
system which we are adopting here the South African flora is grouped into 
178 different " Families," some containing only one or two species, others 
containing hundreds or even thousands. Our illustrations show examples 
of 45 of these families, so that they only represent about a quarter of the total. 
Several very important families have been omitted, as well as a large number of 
less important ones. In the following pages brief notes are given on 72 of the 
famihes represented in the South African flora, with references to the illustrations 
when these exist. 




No. 19 

TRITONIAS. 
ROOIKALOSSIES. 
TRITONIA SPP. 



THE MOST IMPORTANT FAMILIES. 

CYCADACEAE. Illustration No. I 

The Cycad or Kafir Bread Family. Palm-like or fern-like plants, bearing male or 
female cones : the former produce pollen on the lower side of the cone-scales, 
the latter bearing two large seeds on each cone-scale. E. Cape, Natal, E. Transvaal. 



Page 19 



is nie, en as ons ondersoek waarom verskillende plante ooreenstemmende 
kenmerke besit, moet ons een van twee uitleggings aanvaar. Die een is die 
leer van spesiale skepping vol gens 'n grondplan ; die ander is die beginsel van 
evolusie. Volgens hieidie laasgenoemde teorie, wat feitlik universeel deur 
plantkundiges aanvaar word, beteken die verwante eienskappe van plante 
dat hulle dieselfde oorsprong gehad het en 'n gemeenskaplike voorgeslag 
besit ; die verskille beteken dat hulle in die loop van ontelbare geslagte 'n 
verandering ondergaan het. Die woord „families" wat hierbo gebruik is, 
verwys na hierdie idee van verwantskap. 

Wanneer plantkundiges dus plante klassifiseer, probeer hulle om hulle 
in groepe te rangskik volgens hul natuurlike verwante eienskappe op grond 
van ooreenstemmende kenmerke, en hulle probeer om die rangskikkingstelsel 
waarvan hulle hulle bedien 'n weerspieëling van die evolusie- of familiegeskie- 
denis te maak. Hierdie tak van die wetenskap staan bekend as plantesiste- 
matiek. 

Talryke verskillende klassiferingskemas is ontwerp, elkeen met sy eie 
voor- en nadele. Volgens die stelsel waarvan ons ons hier bedien, word die 
Suid-Afrikaanse plantegroei in 178 verskillende „families" saamgevat, sommige 

waarvan slegs een of twee vertakkings het 
terwyl ander honderde of selfs duisende 
bevat. Ons afbeeldings toon voorbeelde 
van 45 van hierdie families aan sodat hulle 
slegs ongeveer 'n kwart van die totaal ver- 
teenwoordig. Verskeie bale bclangrike 
families sowel as 'n groot aantal minder 
belangrikes is weggelaat. Op die volgende 
bladsye verskyn kort aantekeninge oor 72 
van die families wat in die Suid-Afrikaanse 
plantegroei verteenwoordig word, met ver- 
verwysing na die afbeeldings waar hulle 
voorkom. 

DIE BELANGRIKSTE FAMILIES. 

CYCADACEAE. Afbeelding No. i 

Die Sikalde- of Kafferbroodfamilie. Palm- of 
varingagtige plante wat manlike of vroulike 



No. 20 

GEEL PIESANG. 

CRANE FLOWER. 

STRELITZIA REGINAE. 




Bladsy 20 



CONIFERAE. 
Illustration No. 2 
The Conifer Family. The 

Yellowwoods, with male cones 
and solitary or paired seeds, 
are found in evergreen 
forest. The Clanwilliam Cedar 
and Mountain Cypresses, with 
small male and woody female 
cones, occur on open moun- 
tain slopes. W. Cape to Natal 
and Transvaal. 



GRAMINEAE. 
Illustration No. 3 
The Grass Family. The most 
important family in the summer-rainfall districts, being dominant over vast 
areas. Comprises many hundred species, some of great pasture value. The 
flowers are small, often in graceful inflorescences, and are pollinated by wind. 




No. 21 

DRIP DISA. 
DISA LONGICORNU. 



CYPERACEAE. 

The Sedge Family. Mostly occur in moist situations, but many are found on 
hillsides and in forest undergrowth. Flowers inconspicuous, wind-pollinated. 
Throughout the Union. Little pasture value. 

ARACEAE. Illustration No. 4 

The Arum Family. Includes the well-known White Arum or Pig Lily of the Cape 
and yellow and pink species in Natal and Transvaal. The flowers are small and 
are clustered on the central spadix, which is enveloped by the large coloured 
spathe 

RESTIONACEAE. 

The Cape Reed Family. Very abundant on mountains and sand-flats and in vleis 
in the Cape Coastal belt. Male and female plants separate and often very unlike 
one another. Green stems and insignificant leaves. Wind-pollinated. Little 
pasture value, being typical of Cape sour-veld. Some used for thatching. 



Page 21 



Haemanthus Katherinae is a native of the Eastern Cape, Natal and the Eastern 
Transvaal. It is a very handsome plant which has been very successful 
in cultivation in Europe and America, the leaves reaching three feet in 
length and the flower-heads nine inches in diameter. 

Haemanthus Kafherinae is eie aan Oos-Kaapland, Natal en Oos-Transvaal. 
Dit is 'n pragtige plantesoort wat met groot sukses in Europa en Amerika 
gekweek is en waarvan die blare 'n lengte van drie voet en die blomhofies 
*n middellyn van nege duim in deursnee bereik. 



keels dra : eersgenoemde bring stuifmeel op die onderkant van die keëlblaartjies 
voort, terwyl laasgenoemde twee groot saadpitte op elke keëlblad dra. O. Kaap, 
Natal, O. Transvaal. 

CONIFERAE. Afbeelding No. 2 

Die Keeldraende Familie. Die geelhout, met manlike keels en enkelsadig of 
gepaarde sade, word in ewiggroen bosse aangetref. Die Clanwilliamse seder 
en bergsipresse, met klein manlike en houtagtige vroulike keels, word op oop 
berghange aangetref. W. Kaap tot Natal en Transvaal. 

GRAMINEAE. Afbeelding No. 3 

Die Grasfamilie. Die belangrikste familie in die somer-reënvaldi_trikte, waar 
hulle oor groot uitgestrekthede aangetref word. Behels enige honderde ver- 
takkinge, sommige waarvan baie waardevolle welding uitmaak. Die bloeisels 
is klein, dikwels baie sierlik by die oopgaan en hulle word deur die wind bestuif. 



VLEIDISA. 

SWAMP DISA. 

DISA RACEMOSA. 



CYPERACEAE. 

Die Rietgrasfamilie. Kom veral in vogtige omgewings voor, alhoewel baie soorte 
op heuwels en tussen gras in bosse aan- ^^ 22 

getref word. Bloeisels klein en deur die 
wind bestuif. Dwarsdeur die Unie. Ge- 
ringe weidingswaarde. 



ARACEAE. Afbeelding No. 4 

Die Anm-jamilie. Sluit die welbekende 
Aronskelk of varkblom van Kaapland en 
die geel of ligroos soort van Natal en 
Transvaal in. Die bloeisels is klein en 
is gegroepeer om die sentrale blomkolf 
wat omhul is deur die groot gekleurde 
blomskede. 

RESTIONACEAE. 

Die Kaapse Rietfamilie, Is versprei oor 
berge en sandvlaktes en in die vleie van 
die Kaapse kusstreek. Manlike en vroulike 
plante is apart en verskil dikwels van 
mekaar. Groen stamme en klein blaartjies ; 




Bladsy iz 



JUNCACEAE. 

The Rush Family. Mostly vlei plants with 
small brownish flowers and bare slender 
green stems or grass-like leaves. The 
Palmiet of the Cape and Natal rivers, an 
unusual type, is the most conspicuous. 

LILIACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 5-10 
The Lily Family. Includes many bulbous 
and tuberous plants and also many succu- 
lents. Several are conspicuous garden 
favourites. The flowers are usually brightly 
coloured with six separate perianth seg- 
ments, six stamens and a superior ovary of 
three united carpels. 

HAEMODORACEAE. 

Illustration No. 1 1 

The Bloodroot Family. Includes a few rather 

varied plants, of which the yellow waterside 

WachendorflRa and the mauve Dilatris of the Cape are conspicuous. 




No. 23 

POLYSTACHYA PUBESCENS. 



AMARYLLIDACEAE. Illustrations Nos. II-14 

The Amaryllis Family. Diflbrs from the Lily Family mainly in having an inferior 
ovary. Includes many very conspicuous bulbous plants with large brightly- 
coloured flowers. Many are grown in gardens. In all the Provinces. 

IRIDACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 15-19 

The Ixia Family. A large Family, including many species of great beauty of 
form and colour, especially in the Cape coastal belt. Resting and food-storage 
organs usually corms or rhizomes. Perianth segments six, stamens three, 
ovary inferior. 

MUSACEAE. Illustration No. 20 

The Banana Family. Includes the true Bananas and also the Strelitzias (Crane 
Flowers and Wild Banana) with their bizarre form and colouring. 



Page 25 



windbestuiwing. Van geringe weidingswaarde, aangesien dit tipies van die 
Kaapse suurveld is. Sommige soorte word vir rietdakke gebruik. 

JUNCACEAE. 

Die Biesiefamilie. Meestal vleiplante met klein bruinerige bloeisels en kaal dun 
groen stingels of grasagtige blaartjies. Die palmiet van die Kaapse en Natalse 
riviere, 'n buitengewone tipe, is die opvallendste. 

LILIACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 5-TO 

Die Leliefamilie. Sluit in talryke bol- en vetplante. Baie daarvan is opvallende 
tuingunstelinge. Die blomme is gewoonlik helder gekleur, met ses aparte 
blomdelingstukke, ses meeldrade en 'n bowestandige vrugbeginsel met drie 
verenigde vrugblare. 



HAEMODORA.CEAE. Afbeelding No. ii 

Die Bloedwortelfamilie. Sluit in 'n paar ietwat verskillende plante waarvan die 
geel water- Wachendorffia en die ligpers Dilatris van die Kaap die opvallendste is. 



No. 24 

WITTEBOOM. 

SILVER TREE. 

LEUCADENDRON ARGENTEUM. 




AM ARYLLID ACE AE . 

Afbeeldings Nos. 12-14 
Die Narsinglelie-familie. Verskil van die 
leliefamilie hoofsaaklik weens 'n onder- 
standige vrugbeginsel. Sluit in talryke 
baie opvallende bolplante met groot, 
heldergekleurde blomme. 'n Groot 
verskeidenheid word in tuine gekweek. 
In al die provinsies. 

IRIDACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 15-19 
Die Klossiefamilie. Groot familie, in- 
sluitende talryke soorte wat 'n pragtige 
fatsoen en kleur besit, veral die van die 
Kaapse kusstreek. Rus- en voedselbewa- 
ringsorgane bestaan gewoonlik uit stin- 
gelknolle of risome. Blomdek-afdelings ses, 
meeldrade drie, vrugbeginsel onderstandig. 

MUSACEAE. Afbeelding No. 20 

Die Piesangfamilie. Sluit in die opregte 



Bladsy 24 




No. 25 

LEUCADENDRON DISCOLOR. 



ORCHIDACEAE. 
Illustrations Nos. 21-23 
The Orchid Family. Both 
terrestrial and epiphytic 
Orchids occur in the Union. 
The flowers of some are of 
striking beauty, of others of 
smaller size but of remarkable 
and complex form, unsur- 
passed for curiosity in any 
other Family. Mainly in the 
coastal and forest areas, some 
in grass -veld. 



MORACEAE. 

The Fig Family. Several 

species in South Africa, mostly trees with milky latex. The Fig fruit is composed 
of a soft hollow receptacle with a small opening at the tip, bearing numerous 
minute flowers on its inner surface. 



URTICACEAE. 

The Nettle Family. The Nettles and some others of this Family are well-known 
for their ^tinging hairs. Includes several South African plants, herbs or woody, 
with inconspicuous flowers. 

PROTEACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 24-33 

The Protea Family. Mostly shrubs and a few trees, specially characteristic of the 
" Cape " flora m the coastal mountains and plains. The individual flowers are 
of similar structure in all cases, but they are grouped together in a great variety 
of different ways so that the type of inflorescence is extremely varied. Includes 
many magnificent and highly distinctive species. 

LORANTHACEAE. 

The Mistletoe Family. Rootless semi-parasitic plants attached to and deriving 
part of their nourishment from various trees and shrubs. Loranthus has often 
brightly coloured flowers ; Viscum has attractive fleshy berries. 

Page 25 



I'! 



piesangs sowel as die strelitzias (kraanvoëlblom en wilde piesang) met hul 
fantastiese vorm en kleur. 



ORCHIDACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 21-23 

Die Orgideefamilie. Sowel grond- as epifitiese orgideë word in die Unie aangetref. 
Die bloeisels van sommige is baie mooi, dié van ander is kleiner, dog hulle besit 'n 
interessante en ingewikkelde vorm wat in belangwekkendheid nie deur enige 
ander familie oortref word nie. Hoofsaaklik in die kus- en bosstreke ; sommige 
in grasveld. 

MORACEAE. 

Die Vy familie, Verskeie soorte in Suid-Afrika ; hoofsaaklik borne met meiksap. 
Die vy bestaan uit 'n sagte hoi behouer met 'n klein opening aan die punt, en 
met talryke klein bloeisels op die binnekantste oppervlakte. 

URTICACEAE. 

Die Brandnetelfafnilie. Die brandnetel en ander vertakkings van hierdie familie is 
goed bekend weens hul stekelige hare. Sluit in verskeie Suid-Afrikaanse pi ante, 
sag of houterig, met klein bloeisels. 

PROTEACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 24-33 

Die Suikerhos- of Proteafamilie. Meestal struike en 'n paar soorte home, veral 

kenmerkend van die „Kaapse" 

plantegroei op die berge en 

vlaktes van die kusstreek. Die 

individuele bloeisels besit in 

alle gevalle 'n soortgelyke 

vorm, dog hulle is op 'n groot 

aantal verskillende maniere ge- 

groepeer, met die gevolg dat 

die bloeiwyse besonder uiteen- 

lopend is. Sluit talryke prag- 

tige en baie kenmerkende 

soorte in. 

LORANTHACEAE. 

Die Voelent-familie. Wortel- 
lose, halfparasitiese plante, 



No. 26 

LUISIES. 

PINCUSHIONS. 

LEUCOSPERMUM NUTANS. 




Bladsy 26 



SANTALACEAE. 

The Cape Sufnach Family. Mostly partly 
parasitic below ground on the roots of other 
plants. They usually have greenish stems, 
small or scale-like leaves and insignificant 
flowers. 

CHENOPODIACEAE. 

The Ganna Family. Shrubs and herbs, 
mostly with inconspicuous flowers, found 
specially in brak soils and as weeds of 
cultivation. 

AMARANTACEAE. 

The Amaranth Family. A varied Family, 
mostly herbs and shrubs, with somewhat 
inconspicuous scaly, woolly or spiny 
inflorescences. Mostly in semi-desert 
localities and as weeds of cultivation. 




No. 27 

LEUCOSPERMUM REFLEXUM. 



AIZOACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 34, 35 

The Sour Fig Family. Includes the enormous Mesembryanthemum group, all 
more or less succulent, often with brilliant flowers, found mainly in sand-veld, 
karoo and semi-desert. Also includes a number of other less conspicuous plants 
of sandy and saline soils. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE. 

The Carnation Family. There are several species of Pink (Dianthus) native in 
the Union. The Family also includes some familiar weeds of cultivation. 
(Spurrey, Chickweed, etc.) 

NYMPHAEACEAE. Illustration No. 36 

The Water Lily Family. Well-known aquatic plants with floating leaves and 
showy flowers (blue or mauve in the South African species.) 

RANUNCULACEAE. Illustration No. 37 

The Buttercup Family. Includes several familiar plants such as Anemone, Clematis 
and Ranunculus, all of which genera occur also in Europe, though the species 
are distinct. 



Page z-j 



wat geheg is aan, en 'n deel van hul voeding put uit, verskillende soorte bome 
en struike. Die Loranthus besit dikwels helder-gekleurde bloeisels ; voëlent 
(viscum) besit aantreldike vlesige bessies. 

SANTALACEAE. 

Die Kaapse Sumakfajnilie. Gewoonlik gedeeltelik parasities onder die grond, op 
die wortels van ander plante. Hulle besit gewoonlii^ groenerige stamme, klein 
of skaaiagtige blaartjies en onbeduidende bloeisels. 

CHENOPODIACEAE. 

Die Ganna-familie. Bossies en struike, gewoonlik met klein bloeisels word veral 

in brak grond en as onkruid op beboude grond aangetref. 

AMARANTACEAE. 

Die Amarantfamilie, 'n Uiteenlopende familie, hoofsaaklik bossies en struike, 
met ietwat onopvallende, skaaiagtige, wollerige of doringagtige bloeisels. 
Meestal in half-woestynagtige streke en as onkruid op lande. 



No. 28 

STOMPIE. 
MIMETES LYRIGERA. 




AIZOACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 34, 35 
Die Suurvyfamilie. Sluit die reusagtige 
mesembryanthemum-groep in, wat groten- 
deels uit vetplante bestaan, dikwels kleur- 
ryke bloeisels besit en hoofsaaklik in 
sandveld, Karoowêreld en halfwoestyn- 
agtige streke aangetref word. Sluit 00k 'n 
aantal ander minder opvallende plante van 
sanderige en brak grond in. 

CAROPHYLLACEAE. 
Die Angelierfamilie. Daar is verskeie soorte 
grasangeliere (Dianthus) wat eie is aan die 
Unie. Die familie sluit 00k enige bekende 
onkruidtipes op bewerkte grond in (Spor- 
rie, Murik, ens.) 

NYMPHAEACEAE. 

Afbeelding No. 36 

Die Water leliejamilie, Bekende waterplante 



Bladsy 28 



CRUCIFERAE. Illustration No. 38 

The Cabbage Family. Includes one large native genus, Heliophila, some annual 
species of which, (known erroneously as "flax"), with blue flowers are con- 
spicuous in the Western sand-veld in spring ; and several smaller genera ; also 
many introduced weeds of cultivation, e.g. Radish and Shepherd's Purse. 

DROSERACEAE. 

The Sunderp Family. Remarkable insect-catching plants. Small flies, etc., are 
trapped by the sticky tentacles on the leaves, which in many cases digest and absorb 
their victims. 

CRASSULACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 39, 40 

The Crassula Family. A large number of succulents are included under the genera 
Crassula, Cotyledon, etc., mostly growing in karoo and semi-desert areas. 
Flowers small in Crassula, but usually showy in Cotyledon and Rochea. 



No. 29 

MARSH ROSE. 
OROTHAMNUS ZEYHERI. 



BRUNIACEAE. Illustration No. 41 

The Brunia Family. Characteristic of the " Cape " flora. Shrubs, often with 
spherical knob-like inflorescences, but other forms are frequent. 

ROSACEAE. 

The Rose Family. The largest South African genus is Cliifortia, which consists 

of numerous shrubby species 
of diverse forms with insignifi- 
cant male and female flowers, 
which are wind-pollinated and 
very unlike a Rose ! 

LEGUMINOSAE. 

Illustrations Nos. 42-48 
The Pea Family. A vast 
Family, well represented in all 
parts of the Union. The fruit, 
a pod or legume, is character- 
istic of the Family, the flowers 
of which vary widely. Most 
species have the well-known 
pea type of flower, but the 




Page 29 




met drywende blare en opvallende 
blomme (die Suid-Afrikaanse soorte is blou 
of ligpers). 

RANUNCULACEAE. 

Afbeelding No. 37 
Die Botterhlomfamilie. Sluit verskeie be- 
kende plante in soos die windroos, lemoen- 

opklim en ranonkel, waarvan verwante 
vorms 00k in Europa voorkom, alhoewel 
die soorte verskil. 

CRUCIFERAE. Afbeelding No. 38 

Die Koolfamilie. Sluit een groot inheemse 
soort, die sonplant (heliophilia), waaronder 
'n paar jaarlikse soorte wat (verkeerdelik 
bekend as „vlas") met blou blomme op- 
vallend is in die Westelike sandveld ge- 
durend die lente, en verskeie kleiner 
soorte ; 00k talryke ingevoerde onkruid- 
plante, b.v. wilde radys en Capsella bursa pastoris. 

DROSERACEAE. 

Die Snothlomfamilie, Merkwaardige insektevangende plante. Klein vliegies, ens., 
word deur die klewerige haartjies op die blare gevang, wat in baie gevalle hul 
slagoffer verteer en absorbeer. 

CRASSULACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 39, 40 

Die KUphlomfamilie. 'n Groot aantal vetplante word saamgevat onder die geslag 
klipblom. Cotyledon, ens., die meeste waarvan in die Karoo en half-woestynagtige 
streke groei. Die bJoeisels van die klipblomfamilie is klein, dog gewoonlik 
opvallend in die geval van die Cotyledon en Rochea. 

BRUNIACEAE. Afbeelding No. 41 

Die Brmiafamilie. Kenmerkend van die Kaapse plantegroei. Struike, dikwels 
met sfeervormige, knoppiesagtige bloeisels, dog ander vorms kom dikwels 
voor. 



No. 30 

GROOT WOLLFRTGE SUIKERBOS. 
BIG WOOLY PROTEA. 
PROTEA BARBIGERA. 



Bladsy 30 



Acacia group has small flowers in dense 
globular or elongated clusters, and the 
Bauhinia group is also distinct. The 
Family includes herbs, shrubs, trees, 
climbers, etc. Many are of great economic 
value. 

GERANIACEAE. Illustration No. 49 
The Geranium Family, The most important 
South African genus is Pelargonium, with 
many species, often decorative, the origin 
of several familiar garden plants. 

OXALIDACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 50,51 
The Sorrel Family. Oxalis is a very large 
South African genus, mainly in the South- 
West Cape. Herbs with bulbous storage- 
organs and often brightly coloured delicate 
flowers produced in winter and early spring. 




No. 31 

BOX RIVER PROTEA. 

BOTRIVIER-SUIKERBOS. 

PROTEA COMPACTA. 



RUTACEAE. lUustration No. 52 

The Buchu Family, A large Family, characteristic of the " Cape " flora, most 
species being shrubs with aromatic leaves. Some Buchus are used in ofl&cial 
and patent medicines. The Family also includes the beautiful Cape Chestnut 
(Calodendron) and the introduced Citrus fruits. 

MELIACEAE. Illustration No. 53 

The Snee^eivood Family. Includes several well-known South African trees, e.g. 
the Sneezewood with very durable timber, the Dog Plum, the Cape Mahogany, 
etc., and also the very decorative Chinese Lantern Tree or Klapperbos from the 
Swartberg, etc. 

POLYGALACEAE. Illustration No. 54 

The Polygala Family. Includes two large genera, Polygala and Muraltia, both 
with superficially pea-like and usually purple flowers. Found in all Provinces, 
but rare in the arid regions. 



Page 31 



ROSACEAE. 

Die Roosjamilie. Die grootste Suid-Afrikaanse soort is die CliíFortia, wat uit 
talryke struikagtige en uiteenlopende vorms bestaan, met klein manlike en vrou- 
like bloeisels wat deur die wind bestuif word en baie min na 'n roos lyk. 

LEGUMINOSAE Afbeeldings Nos. 42-48 

Die Ertjiefamilie. 'n Groot familie wat goed verteenwoordig is in alle dele van 
die Unie. Die vrug, 'n peul, is kenmerkend van die familie, die blomme waarvan 
baie uiteenlopend is. Die meeste soorte besit die bekende ertjiebloeisel, dog die 
Acacia-groep besit klein bloeisels in dik globaalvormige of verlengde trosse, 
en die Bauliinia-groep is 00k verskillend. Die familie sluit in bossies, struike, 
bome, klimop, ens. Baie daarvan is van groot ekonomiese waarde. 

GERANIACEAE. Afbeelding No. 49 

Die Malvafamilie. Die belangrikste Suid-Afrikaanse soort is die Pelargonium, 
met baie vertakkings, dikwels baie mooi, die oorsprong van talryke bekende 
tuinplante. 



No. 32 

PROTEA GRANDICEPS. 




OXALIDACEAE. 

Afbeeldings Nos. 50, 51 
Die Suringfamilie. Wilde suring is 'n baie 
groot Suid-Afrikaanse soort, hoofsaaklik 
in Suidwes-Kaapland. Bossies met bolag- 
tige opgaringsorgane en dikwels opval- 
lende, delikate blomme wat in die winter 
en vroee lente voorkom. 

RUTACEAE. Afbeelding No. 52 

Die Boegoefamilie, 'n Groot familie, ken- 
merkend van die Kaapse plantegroei, waar- 
van die meeste soorte struike met geurige 
blare is. Sommige boegoesoorte word vir 
die bereiding van mediese stowwe en 
patente medisyne gebruik. Die familie 
sluit 00k in die pragtige Kaapse kastaiing 
(Calodendron) en die ingevoerde sitrus- 
vrugte. 



Bladsy 52 



EUPHORBIACEAE. 

The Milkhush Family. A very large Family of varied habit from trees to annual 
herbs. Euphorbia, the largest genus, is chiefly composed of succulents, some of 
great stature, occurring in a wide range of habitat from desert to bush-veld. 
Latex is copiously present, often with a high rubber content and frequently 
poisonous qualities. 

ANACARDIACEAE. 

The Taaihos Family. Includes the large genus Rhus, found all over the Union, 
consisting of trees and shrubs with insignificant flowers, and also several other 
well-known trees (Kafir Plum, Maroola, Klipbout, etc.). 

CELASTRACEAE. 

The Saffraan Family. Mostly evergreen trees with small white or greenish flowers 
— for instance, the SafFronwood, Pendooring, Hottentot Cherry, etc. 



MELIANTHACEAE. 

The Kruidjie-roer-my-nie Family. 



No. 33 

BLUSHING BRIDE. 

TROTS VAN FRANSCHHOEK. 

SERRURIA FLORIDA. 



F- 




Illustration No. 55 
A small Family, containing the well-known 
Mel'anthus and also the handsome red- 
flowered Greyias of the Drakensberg. 



RHAMNACEAE. 

The Cat-thorn Family. Contains one large 
genus of shrubs (Phylica) with small white 
flowers mostly in heads, and a few thorny 
shrubs (Zizyphus, Scutia, etc.). 

VITACEAE. 

The Vine Family. Includes several tendril- 
climbers (Wild Grape, Monkey Rope) and 
also the remarkable thick-stemmed species 
of Cissus (Botterboom) from South- West 
Africa. 



MALVACEAE. 
The Mallow Family. 



Illustration No. 56 
Mostly shrubs and 



Page 53 




No. 34 

VYGIES. 
SOUR FIGS. 
MESEMBRYANTHEMUM SPP. 



MELIACEAE. 
Afbeelding No. 53 
Die Nieshoutfamilie. Sluit ver- 
skeie bekende Suid-Afrikaanse 
boomsoorte in, b.v. die nies- 
hout met uiters duursame tim- 
merhout, die hondepruim, die 
Kaapse Mahoniehout, ens., en 
00k die baie aantreklike Chi- 
nese Lanternboom of klapper- 
bos van die Swartberg, ens. 



POLYGALACEAE. 

Afbeelding No. 54 
Die Aielkkruidfamilie. Sluit in 
twee groot geslagte, melkkruid 
en muraltia, albei met (oppervlakkig beskou) ertjievormige en gewoonlik pers 
bloeisels. In al die provinsies aangetref, maar seldsaam in die droë streke. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Die Melkhosfamilie, 'n Baie groot familie van uiteenlopende soorte vanaf bome 
tot jaarplante. Euphorbia, die grootste geslag, bestaan hoofsaaklik uit 
vetplante, sommige waarvan baie groot is, en wat in gebied wat sowel woestyn 
as bosveld dek, aangetref word. Melksap is oorvloedig en besit dilcwels 'n hoe 
rubberinhoud ; dikwels is dit giftig. 

ANACARDIACEAE. 

Die Taaihosfamilie. Sluit die groot familie rhus in, dwarsdeur die Unie aangetref, 
bestaande uit bome en struike met klein bloeisels, sowel as verskeie ander bekende 
bome (KafFerpruim, Maroela, Kliphout, ens.). 

CELASTRACEAE. 

Die Safraanfamilie. Meestal ewiggroen bome met klein wit of groenerige bloeisels, 

b.v. die Safraanhout, Pendoring, Hottentotskersie, ens. 

MELIANTHACEAE. Afbeelding No. 55 

Die Kruidjie-roer-my-nie-familie. 'n Klein familie wat die bekende heuningblom 
en 00k die pragtige rooiblom-greyias van die Drakensberg insluit. 



Bladsy 34 



trees with large delicate flowers, for instance Hibiscus, the Mallows, the Cotton 
plant, etc. 

STERCULIACEAE. 

The Sterculia Family. Dombeya with a few species of beautiful flowering trees, 
and Hermannia, a large genus of small shrubs mostly with yellow hanging 
twisted flowers, are the chief South African representatives. 

OCHNACEAE. Illustration No. 57 

The Cape Redwood Family, Ochna, the only South African genus, includes a 

few species of handsome ever- 
green trees with bright yellow 
flowers and curious black 
berry fruits on a bright red 
receptacle. 

FLACOURTIACEAE. 
Includes some well-known 
trees such as the Wild Peach 
(Kiggelaria), the Kei Apple 
(Dovyalis) with an edible fruit, 
and the Red Pear (Scolopia). 




No. 33 BEGONIACEAE. 

STONE PLANT. Til ^ ^' XT O 

TooNTjiE. Illustration No. 58 

LiTHOPs LESLiEi. jj^^ ^^^^^-^ Familj. Scvcral 

species of Begonia, a genus familiar in cultivation, occur wild in the eastern 
Transvaal, Natal and the Transkei. 

PENAEACEAE. 

The Penaea Family. A Family of shrubs confined to the Cape coastal belt and 

mountains • some are handsome, e,g. Brachysiphon and Sarcocolla. 

THYMELAEACEAE. Illustration No. 59 

The Daphne Family. A large Family of shrubs, some insignificant, others of 
considerable beauty, e.g. the Mountain Aster (Lachnea) of the Cape and the 
Kannabast (Dais) of the Eastern districts of the Union. 



Page 35 



m:,i£íiisiiíJL'ti.v:^^ 



IJJJI* ! ! ' 



!í i 




NERINA 



NERINA 



NERINB SARNIENSIS 



Nerine sarniensis is one of the most beautiful of our wild flowers and is known 
in a number of exquisite colour-varieties. It grows on moist and shady 
rock-ledges on several of the mountains of the South- Western Cape, and 
flowers in March and April. It has been much grown in gardens overseas. 

Nerine sarniensis is een van die pragtigste soorte veldblomme en word in 'n 
reeks voortreflike kleure aangetref. Dit groei op vogtige en beskutte 
lyste van kranse op verskeie berge van Suidwes-Kaapland en blom in Maart 
en April. Dit is op 'n groot skaal in tuine oorsee gekweek. 



RHAMNACEAE. 

Die Katdoringjamilte. Bevat een groot 

familie struike (Phylica) met klein wit 

bloeisels meestal in klompies, en 'n paar 

doringagtige struike (Zizyphus, Scutia, 

ens.y 

VITACEAE. 

Die Wjnstokfamilie. Sluit verskeie rank- 
soorte in (wilde druiwe, bobbejaantou) 
sowel as die merkwaardige dikstammige 
soort Cissus (botterboom) van Suidwes- 
Afrika. 

MALVACEAE. Afbeelding No. 56 

Die Kiesieblaarfamilie. Meestal struike 
en borne met groot sierlike bloeisels, b.v. 
vuurblom (Hibiscus), die kiesieblaar, die 
katoenplant, ens. 




No. 36 

WATERLELIE. 

WATER LILY. 

NYMPHAEA STELLATA. 



STERCULIACEAE. 

Die Sterculia-familie. Dombeya, met 'n paar soorte pragtige bome wat bloeisels 
dra, en Hermannia, 'n groot reeks klein struike meestal met geel, hangende, 
gedraaide bloeisels, is die vernaamste Suid-Afrikaanse soorte. 

OCHNACEAE. Afbeelding No. 57 

Die Kaapse Rooihoutjamilie. Ochna, die enigste Suid-Afrikaanse soort, sluit in 'n 
paar soorte pragtige ewiggroen bome met helder geel bloeisels en eienaardige 
swart bessies met 'n helder rooi dop. 

FLACOURTIACEAE. 

Sluit in 'n paar bekende bome soos die wilde perske (Kiggelaria), die keiappel 
(Dovyalis) met 'n eetbare vrug en die rooi peer (Scolopia). 

BEGONIACEAE. Afbeelding No. 58 

Die Begonia-familie. Verskeie soorte Begonia, 'n geslag wat bekend is in die 
tuinbou, word wild aangetref in Oos-Transvaal, Natal en die Transkei. 



Bladsy 36 



UMBELLIFERAE. 

The Carrot Family, A distinctive herbaceous Family, mostly with small greenish 
or white flowers in umbels. Includes the Wild Aniseed (Annesorhiza), the Blister 
Bush or Wild Celery (Peucedanum) and many other aromatic plants ; also 
several familiar kitchen garden plants, e.g. Carrot, Parsnip, Parsley, Celery, etc. 

ERICACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 60-67 

The Heath Family, One of the best-known South African Families with many 
hundreds of species of Heaths (Erica and other genera), mainly in the Cape 
coastal belt, with some in the Drakensberg. The flowers, though relatively 
small, are produced in great numbers and are remarkable for their beauty of 
detailed form and colour. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 68, 69 

The Plumbago Family. Includes familiar plants such as the blue Plumbago, abun- 
dant in the Eastern Cape, and the mainly coastal Sea Lavenders (Statice). 



EBENACEAE. 

The Ebony Family, Several shrubs and 
small trees found all over the Union, of 
which the Guarri of the Karoo (Euclea) 
and various species of Royena are familiar. 

OLEACEAE. Illustration No. 70 

The Olive Family, The genus Olea includes 
the Wild Olive and the Black Ironwood, 
a fine timber tree : the sweet-scented 
Jasmines also belong to this Family. 

LOGANIACEAE. 

The Sagewood Family, Here belongs the 
Vlier (Nuxia), an ornament of the ever- 
green forests, the Sagewoods (Buddleia) 
with their strong characteristic scent, and 
the Kafir Oranges (Strychnos). 



No. 37 

CAPE ANEMONE. 

ANEMOON. 

ANEMONE CAPENSIS. 




Page 37 



No. 38 

BLOU RIET. 
WILD STOCK. 
BRACHYCARPAEA VARIANS. 



PENAEACEAE. 

Die Penaea-familie. 'n Familie struike wat 
beperk is tot die Kaapse kusstreke en 
berge : sommige daarvan is ptagtig soos 
b.v. Brachysiphon en SarcocoUa. 

TFIYMELAEACEAE 
Afbeelding No. 59 
Die Daphne-familie. 'n Groot familie struike, 
sommige waarvan onopvallend, ander 
pragtig is, soos b.v. die bergaster (Lachnea) 
van die Kaap en die Kannabast (Dais) van 
die Oostelike distrikte van die Unie. 



UMBELLIFERAE. 

Die Geehvortelfamilie. 'n Opvallende bossie- 
agtige familie, meestal met klein groenerige 
of wit bloeisels in skerms. Sluit in die 
wilde anys (Annesorhiza), die wilde seldery 
(Peucedanum) en baie ander soorte geurige 

plante : 00k verskeie bekende groentesoorte, b.v. geelwortel, witwortel, pieter- 

selie, seldery, ens. 




ERICACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 60-67 

Die Heidefamilie. Een van die bekendste Suid-Afrikaanse families, met baie 
honderde soorte heide (Erica en ander soorte), hoofsaaklik in die Kaapse kus- 
streek met sommige in die Drakensberg. Alhoewel die blomme betreklik klein 
is, kom hulle in groot getalle voor en is huUe bekend weens die prag van hul 
verskillende vorm en kleur. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. (>%, 69 

Die Plumhago-familie, Sluit bekende plante in soos die blou Plumbago, in oor- 
vloed in die oostelike Kaap, en die see-leventel (Statice) hoofsaaklik van die 
kusstreek. 

EBENACEAE. 

Die Ehhehoutfamilie. Verskeie struike en klein boompies word dwarsdeur 
die Unie aangetref, waarvan die ghwarrie van die Karoo (Euclea) en verskeie 



Bladsy 38 



GENTIANACEAE. Illustration No. 71 

The Gentian Family. Includes the large genera Chironia and Sebaea, mostly 
herbaceous plants with bright pink or yellow flowers in the coastal districts. 

APOCYNACEAE. Illustration No. 72 

The Periwinkle Family. The Amatungulu (Carissa) with edible fruits, the Bush- 
man's Poison (Acokanthera) with highly poisonous fruits, and the naturalised 
Periwinkles (Vinca), blue, white and red, are well known. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 73, 74 

The Stapelia Family. Includes many highly remarkable succulents (Stapelia, 
Caralluma, Tavaresia, Trichocaulon, etc.), the climbing Ceropegias with flowers 
of varied and fantastic shape, and also a large number of climbing and herbaceous 
plants. Throughout the Union. 



CONVOLVULACEAE. 

The Morning Glory Family. In addition to the showy climbing Ipomoea and 
Convolvulus this Family also contains the thread-like leafless small-flowered 

parasite the Dodder (Cuscuta). 



No. 39 

HONDEOOR. 
COTYLEDON ORBICULATA. 




BORAGINACEAE. Illustration No. 75 
The Forget-me-not Family. The genera 
Myosotis (Forget-me-not), Anchusa (Cape 
Forget-me-not) and Lobostemon (Acht- 
dag-genees-bos) are familiar. 

VERBENACEAE. 
The Verbena Family. Includes numerous 
herbs, shrubs and trees found throughout 
the Union, few of which, however, have 
distinctive or showy flowers. 

LABIATAE. Illustrations Nos. 76, 77 
The Sage Family. A large Family in South 
Africa, often aromatic herbs with opposite 
leaves and square stems. The Wilde 
Dagga (Leonotis), the Mints (Mentha), 



Page 39 




No. 40 

KEISERSKROON. 

RED CRAS3ULA. 

ROCHEA COCCINEA. 



soorte Royena die bekendste 
is. 

OLEACEAE. 
Afbcelding No. 70 
Die Oiytjamilie, Die Olea- 
geslag sluit in die wilde 
olyf en die swart yster- 
hout, 'n uitstekende tim- 
merhout : die geurige jasmyn 
behoort 00k aan hierdie 
familie. 



LOGANIACEAE. 

Die Saliehoutfamilie. Hieraan 

behoort die vlier (Nuxia), 'n 

pragstuk van die ewiggroen 

bosse, die saliehout (Buddieia) met hul sterk kenmerkende geur, en die kafFer- 

lemoen (Strychnos). 

GENTIANACEAE. Afbeelding No. 71 

Die Gentiaan-familie, Sluit in die groot geslagte Chironia en Sebaea, meestal 
bossieagtige plante met helder ligroos of geel bloeisels in die kusdistrikte. 

APOCYNACEAE. Afbeelding No. 72 

Die Aiaagdepalmjamilie. Die Amantungulu (Carissa) met eerbare vrugte, die 
boesmansgif (Acokanthera) met uiters giftige vrugte en die genaturaliseerde 
maagdepalm (Vinca) blou, wit en rooi is goed bekend. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 73, 74 

Die Stapelia-familie. Sluit in talryke uiters intercssante vetplanre (Stapelia, Caral- 
luma, Tavaresia, Trichocaulon, ens.), die rankende Ceropegias met blomme 
van uiteenlopende en fantastiese fatsocn en 00k 'n groot aantal rank- en kruid- 
agtige plante. Dwarsdeur die Unie. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. 

Die Purper-ivindefamilie. Behalwe die opvallende rankende Ipomoea en Con- 
volvulus, bevat hierdie familie 00k die draadagtige, blaarlose parasiet, die dodder 
(Cuscuta) met klein bloeisels. 



Bladsy 40 



and the various Sages (Salvia) are 
examples. Several introduced species are 
used as pot-herbs. 

SOLANACEAE. 
The Potato Family. Various species of 
Solanum occur (Apple of Sodom, Night- 
shade, etc.), and several species of Lycium 
are thorny shrubs of arid localities. Here 
belong many familiar naturalised plants 
such as the Cape Gooseberry (Physalis), 
the Stinkblaar (Datura) and the Wild 
Tobacco (Nicotiana) : also such important 
economic plants as the Tomato, Potato 
and Tobacco. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE. 

Illustrations Nos. 78-81 
The Snapdragon Family. A Family of 
numerous genera and a large number of species, especially in the genera 
Nemesia and Sutera. Some are total root-parasites, such as Harveya, of which 
there are many striking species, and Hvobanche. The Family occurs in all parts 
of the Union. 




No. 41 

KOLKOL. 
BERZELIA ABROTANIFOLIA 



BIGNONIACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 82-84 

The Kafir Honeysuckle Family. Includes several handsome climbers, e.g. the 
Port St. Johns Creeper (Podranea) and the Kafir Honeysuckle (Tecomaria), 
as well as the shrubby Driedooring (Rhigozum) of the Karroid districts. 

PEDALIACEAE. illustration No. 85 

The Sesame Family. Mostly herbaceous plants of the central districts, often 
with spiny or winged fruits, adapted for dispersal by animals or the wind : 
the fruit of the Grapple Plant (Harpagophytum) is specially formidable. 

GESNERACEAE. Illustration No. 86 

The Gloxinia Family. One genus, Streptocarpus, in South Africa. Often 
epiphytic on tree trunks or on moist rocks in summer rainfall districts. Some 



Page 41 



BORAGINACEAE. Afbeelding No. 75 

Die Vergeet-my-nietjie-familie. Die geslag Myosotis (vergeet-my-nietjie), Anchusa 
fKaapse vergeet-my-nietjie) en Lobostemon (agdag-geneesbos) is goed bekend. 

VERBENACEAE. 

Die Verbena-familie. Sluit in talryke plant jies, struike en borne wat dwarsdeur die 

Unie aangetref word, min waarvan egter opvallende of mooi bloeisels besit. 

LABIATAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 76, 77 

Die SaliefamiUe, 'n Groot familie in Suid-Afrika, dikwels geurige kruiesoorte met 
teenoorstaande blare en vierkantige stingels. Die wilde dagga (Leonotis), die 
kruisementsoorte (Mentha) en die verskiUende soorte salie (Salvia) is voorbeelde. 
Verskeie ingevoerde soorte word vir die krui van voedsel gebruik. 

SOLANACEAE. 

Die AartappelfamiUe, Verskeie soorte Solanum kom voor (sodomsappel, naster- 
gal, ens.) en verskeie soorte Lycium is doringagtige struike in droë streke. 
Hiertoe behoort talryke bekende genaturaliseerde plante soos die Kaapse appelliefie 
(Physalis), die stinkblaar (Datura) en die wilde tabak (Nicotiana) : 00k plante 
van groot ekonomiese belang soos die tamatie, aartappel en tabak. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE. 
Afbeeldings Nos. 78-81 
Die Leeuhekkiefamilie. 'n Fa- 
milie van talryke soorte en met 
'n groot reeks vertakkings, 
veral in die geslagte Nemesia 
en Sutera. Sommige is heelte- 
mal wortelparasiete, soos 
Harveya, waarvan daar talryke 
treifende soorte bestaan, en 
Hyobanche. Die familie word 
dwarsdeur die Unie aangetref. 

BIGNONIACEAE. 

Afbeeldings Nos. 82-84 

Die Kaffer-kamperfoelie. Sluit 

in talryke pragtige klimop- 

soorte, b.v. die Port St. Johns- 



No. 42 

PRIDE OF DE KAAP. 
BAUHINIA GALPINII. 




Bladsy 42 



species have only one leaf which grows continuously throughout life. Some 
species and hybrids are favourite greenhouse plants. 

ACANTHACEAE. Illustration No. 87 

The Acanthus Family. A large Family of shrubs and herbs occurring through- 
out the Union except in the south-west Cape. Many have spinous leaves and 
inflorescences. Some have showy flowers (e.g. Thunbergia, Mackaya). 

RUBIACEAE. Illustrations Nos. 88-90 

The Gardenia Family. This large Family includes some of our most beautiful 
trees and shrubs, e.g. Alberta from the Transkei and Natal, the Buffelshoorn 
(Burchellia) from the forests, the Katj'epiering (Gardenia) with sweet-scented 
flowers, and also several other handsome forest trees and shrubs. In the Cape 
coastal belt, however, the Family is chiefly represented by a number of small 
shrubs with insignificant wind-pollinated flowers. (Anthospermum.) 

DIPSACEAE. Illustration No. 91 

The Scabious Family. The small flowers arc massed in showy heads resembling 

those of certain Compositae, but easily 
distinguished by the free stamens. 



No. 43 

BUSH TEA. 

HEUNINGTEE. 

CYCLOPIA GENISTOIDES. 




CUCURBITACEAE. 

The Gourd Family. The South African 
members of this Family include various 
gourds, cucumbers, melons and other 
tendril-climbers, and also the remarkable 
'* Nara '' of the S.W. African deserts. 

CAMPANULACEAE. 

Illustrations Nos. 92, 93 

The Campanula Family. Mostly herbs or 
small shrubs, often with blue flowers, 
some being regular in form (Roella, 
Wahlenbergia), others irregular (Lobelia, 
Cyphia). Distributed throughout the 
Union. 



Page 43 



klimop (Podranca) en die kafFer-kamper- 
foelie (Tecomaria) sowel as die struikagtige 
Driedoring (Rhigozum) van die Karoo- 
distrikte. 

PEDALIACEAE. Afbeelding No. 85 
Die Sesamkruidfamilie. Meestal bossie- 
agtige plante van die sentrale distrikte, 
dikwels met doringagtige of gevleuelde 
saad, wat so toegerus is dat hiille deur 
diere of die wind versprei kan word : die 
vrug van die rankdoring (Harpagophytum) 
is veral gedug. 

GESNERACEAE. Afbeelding No. 86 
Die Gloxinia-familie. Een soort, Strepto- 
carpus, in Suid-Afrika. Dikwels epifities 
op die stamme van borne of op vogtige 
rotse in somerreënvalstreke. Sommige 
soorte bet slegs een blaar wat dwarsdeur 
hul bestaan groei. Sommige soorte en 
bastersoorte is gewilde broeikasplante. 




No. 44 

ERYTHRINA HUMEANA. 



ACANTHACEAE. Afbeelding No. 87 

Die Akantjamilie. 'n Groot familie struike en kruie wat dwarsdeur die 
Unie, behalwe in Suidwes-Kaapland, voorkom. Bale van hulle besit doring- 
agtige blare en bloeisels. Sommige daarvan besit pragtige bloeisels (b.v. 
Thunbergia, Mackaya). 

RUBIACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 88-90 

Die Katjiepieringfamilie, Hierdie groot familie sluit in sommige van ons prag- 
tigste bome en struike, b.v. Alberta van die Transkei en Natal, die buffelshoring 
(Burchellia) van die bosse, die katjiepiering (Gardenia) met welriekende blomme 
en 00k verskeie ander pragtige bosbome en struike. In die Kaapse kusstreek 
word die familie egter hoofsaaklik deur 'n klein aantal struikies met klein bloeisels 
(Anthospermum), wat deur die wind bestuif word, verteenwoordig. 

DIPSACEAE. Afbeelding No. 91 

Die Scabiosa-familie, Die klein bloeisels kom voor in mooi hofies wat lyk soos 



Bladsy 44 



COMPOSITAE. 
Illustrations Nos. 94- 1 00 
The Daisy Family. A vast Family, the 
largest in the world, and abundantly re- 
presented in South Africa, occurring in 
all parts of the country. Regarded by 
botanists as being the most highly evolved 
Family of the whole plant kingdom. 
A high proportion of the species are 
shrubs, others being herbaceous. The 
individual flowers are usually small, but 
conspicuousness is often achieved by 
the massing together of numerous florets 
in a common involucre. The Family 
includes the showy genera Gazania, 
Arctotis, Gerbera, Venidium, Ursinia, etc., 
and also plants with inconspicuous flowers 
such as the Rhenoster Bush (Ely- 
tropappus), and the Slangbos (Stoebe). 
Other well-known plants are the in- 
numerable Everlastings (Helichrysum, Phoenocoma, etc.), and the even more 
numerous Groundsels (Senecio). Moreover, many familiar introduced weeds 
belong here, e.g. various Thistles (Sonchus, Cnicus, Silybum, Centaurea), the 
Burweed (Xanthium), the Khakibush (Tagetes), etc. 




No. 45 

MOUNTAIN DAHLIA. 

GEELKOP. 
LIPARIA SPHERICA 



Page 45 



sekere soorte Compositae, maar wat maklik uitgeken kan word weens hul 
meeldrade. 



No. 46 

SILVER PEA. 
PRIESTLEYA VILLOSA. 



CUCURBITACEAE. 

Die Pampoenfamilie. Die Suid-Afrikaanse lede van hierdie familie sluit in 

verskillende soorte pampoene, komkommers, waatlemoene en ander soorte 

rankklimop, sowel as die merkwaardige „Nara" van die Suidwes-Afrikaanse 

woestyne. 

CAMPANULACEAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 92, 93 

Die Klokkieshlomfamilie. Meestal kruie of klein struikies, dikwels met blou 
bloeisels, sommige waarvan 'n reëlmatige vorm besit (Roella, Wahlenbergia), 
ander onreëlmatig (Lobelia, Cyphia). Dwarsdeur die Unie aangetref. 

COMPOSITAE. Afbeeldings Nos. 94-100 

Die Madeliefiefamilie. 'n Reuse-familie, die grootste in die wêreld en wat ruim- 
skoots in Suid-Afrika verteenwoordig word ; word dwarsdeur die land aangetref. 
Plantkundiges meen dat hierdie familie die hoogs ontwikkelde reeks van die 

hele plante-koninkryk is. 'n Hoe persen- 
tasie van hierdie soort is struike terwyl 
ander soorte kruie is. Die individuele 
bloeisels is gewoonlik klein, dog dikwels 
is hulle opvallend weens die groepering 
van talryke klein bloeiseltjies in 'n gemeen- 
skaplike omhulsel. Die familie sluit in 
die pragtige soorte Gazania, Arctotis, 
Gerbera, Venidium, Ursinia, ens., en 00k 
plante met onopvallende blommetjies soos 
die renosterbos (Elytropappus), en die 
slangbos (Stoebe). Ander bekende plante 
is die talryke sewejaartjies (Helichrysum, 
Phoenocoma, ens.) en die selfs talryker 
kruiskruid (Senecio). 'n Groot aantal 
bekende ingevoerde soorte onkruid behoort 
hieraan, b.v. verskillende soorte distels 
(Sonchus, Cnicus, Silybum, Centaurea), 
die boetebossie (Xanthium), die kakiebos 
(Tagetes), ens. 




Bladsy 46 



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CZJt^Jdqs of ^3)oi4Ín ^s/~ijrican ^lyeóelahon 



No. 47 

BLOJKEUR. 
PSORALEA APHYLLA. 



IN the following chapter will be described in outline the principal types 
of vegetation which are found in the various parts of the Union. The 
idea of " vegetation " is distinct from that of " plants " in the same 
way that the idea of a human society is distinct from that of individuals, races 
or families. Similar types of vegetation may occur in widely separated parts 
of the globe although the plants of which 
they are composed are unlike. For in- 
stance, tropical rain-forest is the principal 
type of plant society in the Malay Archi- 
pelago, the Cameroons and the Amazon 
basin, but the trees, palms, Hanas, ferns, 
etc., in the three areas are of totally dif- 
ferent species : the grasslands of the 
Transvaal are composed of different grasses 
from those of the comparable grasslands 
of the Argentine : desert vegetation 
occurs in the Sahara, the Namib, Arizona 
and Central Australia, the plants being 
different in each case but the plant societies 
having their principal characteristics com- 
mon to all. 

The distribution of " plant societies " 
or of " types of vegetation " depends 
mainly on factors of climate and soil. 




Page 47 



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CZJlpes vata Cyitid=!:i/-ijrikaaiise ClJlanie^ 



roet 



No. 48 

GANSIES. 

CANCER BUSH. 

SUTHERLANDIA FRUTESCENS. 



DIE volgende hoofstuk bestaan uit 'n algemene beskrywing van die 
vernaamste tipes van plantegroei wat in verskillende dele van die Unie 
aangetref word. Die opvatting van „plantegroei" is apart van die van 
„plante", soos die opvatting van 'n menslike gemeenskap apart is van die van 
individue, rasse of families. Soortgelyke tipes van plantegroei kan in wyd 

uitmekaar verspreide dele van die aardbol 
aangetref word, alhoewel die plante waar- 
uit hulle bestaan, verskillend is. By 
voorbeeld, tropiese reënbos is die ver- 
naamste plantgenootskap in die Maleise 
Argipel, die Kamaroen en die Amazon- 
bassin, maar die bome, palms, liane, 
varings, ens., in die drie gebiede aanwesig, 
behoort tot totaal verskillende species : 
die grasveld van die Transvaal bestaan 
uit grasse wat verskil van die van die 
vergelykbare grasstreke van Argentinië : 
woestynplantegroei is aanwesig in die 
Sahara, die Namib, Arizona, en Sentraal- 
Australië, waar die plante in elke geval 
verskillend is, maar waar die vernaamste 
kenmerke van plantgenootskappe ooreen- 
stemming openbaar. 

Die verspreiding van „plantgenoot- 




Bladsy 48 




In South Africa, as elsewhere, climate 
determines the general character of the 
vegetation — forest, scrub, savannah, grass- 
land, karoo, etc. — over large areas. The 
total annual rainfall varies greatly in the 
different parts of the Union ; and the 
actual amount that may fall in a year 
ranges from zero to well over a hundred 
inches. The distribution of the ra'nfall 
throughout the year also varies. Local ties 
with an all-the-year-round rainfall are very 
limited, and the greater part of the country 
has a pronounced dry season of several 
months during which rains are exceptional. 
This dry season is the summer in the 
south-west Cape Province and the winter 
in the Free State, the Transvaal and 
Natal. These differences have a profound 
effect on the vegetation. 

Within an area of uniform climate 
variations of soil produce great local differences in the vegetation. Soils may 
be deep, shallow or non-existent, fine or coarse, acid or alkaline, rich or poor in 
soluble minerals, and so on. 

Thus the physical conditions of climate and soil which affect human life 
and agriculture are reflected by the native vegetation, and if we had knowledge 
enough to read the indications which it gives we should be saved from many 
mistakes. Moreover we should be able to recognise the influence of artificial 
factors such as burning, overstocking, etc., and could endeavour to regulate 
our policy accordingly. Hence we may realise that the study of botany, and in 
particular the branch known as " ecology " or " plant sociology," is of great 
importance for the future well-being of this country. 



No. 49 

SCARLET GERANIUM. 

ROOI 2V1ALVA. 

PELARGONIUM INQUINANS. 



•7 
'I 



Page 49 



Gladiolus alatus, the kalkoentjie, is a plant of the hills and plains of the 
Cape Peninsula and adjoining districts. It flowers in August and September, 
and the form and colouring of its flowers are curious and unmistakeable. 
It was formerly abundant, but like many other wild flowers it has been 
greatly reduced in numbers by cultivation of the land. 

Gladiolus alatus, die kalkoentjie, is 'n plant wat op die heuwels en vlaktes 
van die Kaapprovinsie en aangrensende distrikte aangetref word. Dit 
blom in Augustus en September, en die fatsoen en kleur van die blomme 
is eienaardig en onmiskenbaar. Voorheen was dit oorvloedig, maar soos 
in die geval van bale ander soorte veldblomme, is hierdie plantesoort 
grootliks uitgedun weens bewerking van die grond. 



skappe" of van „tipes van plantegroei" hang hoofsaaklik van die faktore klimaat 
en grond af. 

In Suid-Afrika, soos elders, bepaal die klimaat die algemene aard van die 
plantegroei — bos, struikgewas, savanna, grasveld. Karoo, ens. — oor groot 
gebiede. Die totale jaarlikse reënval verskil grootliks in die verskillende dele 
van die Unie : en die werklike hoeveelheid wat gedurende die jaar kan val, 
kan van nul tot goed oor 'n honderd duim afwissel. Die distribusie van die 
reënval dwarsdeur die jaar wissel ook af. Gebiede met 'n reenval dwarsdeur 
die jaar is bale beperk en die grootste deel van die land kry 'n gevoelig droë 
seisoen van 'n aantal maande, wanneer 'n bui reën 'n uitsondering is. Die droë 
seisoen is die somer in die suidwestelike Kaapprovinsie en die winter in die 
Vrystaat, Transvaal en Natal. Hierdie verskille het 'n gevoelige uitwerking 
op die plantegroei. 

In 'n gebied met 'n egalige klimaat, veroorsaak 'n verskil van die grond- 
samestelling opvallende verskille in die plantegroei. Grond kan diep, vlak of 
afwesig, fyn of grof, suur of brak, ryk of arm aan oplosbare chemiese bestanddele, 
ens., wees. 

Dus word die fisiese eienskappe van klimaat en grond wat die menslike 
voortbestaan en landbou beïnvloed, deur 
die inheemse plantegroei weerspieël ; en 
had ons genoeg kennis om die aanduidings 
te kan begryp wat dit openbaar, sou ons 
bale foute kon vermy het. Wat meer is, ons 
behoort die uitwerking van kunsmatige 
faktore soos veldbrand, oorbeweiding, ens., 
te kan besef en ons beleid daarvolgens 
probeer bepaal. Ons sal dus begryp dat 'n 
studie van plantkunde en veral die ver- 
takking bekend as „ekologie" of „plant- 
sosiologie" van die grootste belang vir die 
toekomstige welvaart van Suid-Afrika is. 



No. 50 

GEEL SURING. 

YELLOW SORREL. 

OXALIS PES CAPRAE. 




Bladsy 50 



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©li'y'ÍIl |^IFía!l(gl^l?3 í?ÍL®!ai! 



ana ineir ^ UinaerQroicln 



rees 



No. 51 

PURPLE SORREL. 

ROOI SURING. 

OXALIS PURPUREA. 



TREES occur over a large part of the Union, but forest proper is very 
limited in extent. The mere presence of trees does not constitute a 
forest, either in the popular or the scientific sense of the word. Such 
types of country as bush-veld or savannah are always regarded as distinct from 
true forest. In country which we recognise as forest the trees are close enough 
to one another for their crowns to form a more or less continuous canopy, the 
result of which is to create very different conditions beneath that canopy to 
what would exist if it were removed. The amount of light penetrating through 
the can^^ -, .^ th» í"* »rest floor is very much reduced : the movement of air inside 

the forest is slower : evapora- 
tion from the soil is reduced : 
the day temperature is lower : 
and all these influences result 
in a moister atmosphere 
and soil and a less intense 
light, and consequently a quite 
diflerent type of plants forms 
the forest undergrowth from 
those which exist outside the 
forest. In the savannah and 
bush-veld types of country the 
trees are well spaced out, they 
often cast little shade and their 
undergrowth is therefore very 




Page 51 



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Dosse : ^^JJiQ' ^JenoolskaJD van CS/Do 
c/lul C2)lrutk^eiA)asse 



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en 



No. 52 

KLIPSISSIE. 
ADENANDRA FRAGRANS. 



BOME word oor 'n groot deel van die Unie aangetref, maar eintlike boswêreld 
is beperk. Die blote aanwesigheid van borne dui nie 'n bos aan nie, 
hetsy in die alledaagse of die wetenskaplike sin van die woord. Die 
streek bekend as bos- of grasveld word altyd as afsonderlik van egte boswereld 
beskou. In sulke gebied wat ons as boswereld boskou, is die borne so na 
aanmekaar dat hul toppe min of meer 'n 
ononderbroke gewelf vorm, die gevolg 
waarvan is om baie verskillende toestande 
onder daardie gewelf te skep as wat die 
geval sou wees indien dit verwyder sou 
geword het. Die hoeveelheid lig wat deur 
die gewelf van die bos tot op die grond 
deurdring, word grootliks verminder ; die 
beweging van lug in die bos is stadiger ; 
verdamping uit die grond is verminder ; 
en al hierdie invloede het as gevolg 'n 
vogtiger atmosfeer en grond en minder 
gekonsentreerde lig, en gevolglik verteen- 
woordig die struikgewasse in die bos 'n 
heeltemal verskillende soort plantegroei as 
daarbuite. In die gras- en bosveldstreek 
staan die borne mooi van mekaar af, hulle 
gooi dikwels nie baie skaduwee nie en hul 
struikgewas is derhalwe baie min anders as 




Bladsy 52 




little different from what it would 
be if the trees were removed : whereas 
in true forest the removal of the trees 
has a marked effect upon the undergrowth. 

Forest occurs mainly along the 
mountain ranges parallel with the south 
and east coasts of the Union and on 
their seaward sides and also on the 
Drakensberg escarpment in Natal and 
the Transvaal. Most of the forests are 
limited in extent and often confined to 
sheltered kloofs. The Knysna forest 
occurs over hills, plains and mountain 
slopes in a region of rainfall evenly 
distributed throughout the year. 

Most of our forest trees are ever- 
green and have undivided leathery leaves 
often with a smooth surface. They 
are almost always found in a mixture 
of several species. The Yellowwoods 
(Podocarpus) are often the tallest trees, sometimes reaching 150 feet, their 
crowns standing high above the general canopy and bearing grey streamers 
of lichen. Other well-known trees are the Black Ironwood (Olea), the Stinkwood 
(Ocotea), the Assegaai (Curtisia), the Rooi Els (Cunonia), the Hard Pear 
(Olinia), the Red Pear (Scolopia), the White Pear (Apodytes) and many others. 
Woody climbers or Monkey Ropes (Secamone, Vitis) festoon the trees. Ferns 
are abundant in the undergrowth including Tree Ferns (Hemitelia in the Cape, 
Cyathea in Natal and the Transvaal) and various characteristic shrubs, bulbous 
plants and herbs. In the summer rainfall districts epiphytic orchids are found 
on the tree trunks and branches, together with some ferns and abundant mosses, 
liverworts and lichens. 

Our forests usually have a well-defined edge : this is mainly due to bush 
fires in the adjoining vegetation which destroy the forest margin and, if frequent, 
eat into and finally exterminate the whole forest. 

Forest is the most highly developed form of plant-society, and is usually 
regarded as a " climax." That is, starting with a piece of bare soil in a 
suitable climate, the vegetation appearing on it will ordinarily go through a series 
of stages ; first a weedy growth of herbaceous plants, then shrubs which will 



No. 53 

CHINESE LANTERNS. 

KLAPPERBOS. 
NYMANIA CAPENSIS. 



Page 53 



wat die geval sou gewees het as die borne nie daar sou gewees het nie ; terwyl 
in die geval van egte boswêreld, die verwydering van die borne 'n aansienlike 
uitwerking op die struikgewas het. 

Bosse word hoofsaaklik op die bergreekse aangetref wat parallel loop met 
die suid- en ooskus van die Unie en op hul seekant en ook op die Drakensbergse 
steiltes in Natal en die Transvaal. Die meeste bosse is beperk in omvang en 
word dikwels veral in klowe aangetref. Die Knysna-bos word op heuwels, 
vlaktes en berghange in 'n streek waar die reënval egalig dwarsdeur die jaar 
plaasvind, aangetref. 

Die meeste van ons bosbome is ewiggroen en besit onverdeelde, leeragtige 
blare, dikwels met 'n gladde oppervlakte. Hulle word bykans altyd in verskeie 
soorte deurmekaar aangetref. Die Geelhout (Podocarpus) is dikwels die hoogste 
bome, wat somtyds 150 voet haal, en waarvan die toppe hoog bokant die gewone 
gewelf uitsteek en waaraan grys stroke korsmos hang. Ander bekende bome is 
die Swart Ysterhout (Olea), die Stinkhout (Ocotea), die Assegaai (Curtisia), die 
Rooi Els (Cunonia), die Harde Peer (Olinia), die Rooi Peer (Scolopia), die Wit 
Peer (Apodytes) en baie ander. Houterige klimop of Bobbejaantou (Secamone, 
Vitis) festoneer die bome. Varings is oorvloedig in die struikgewas, insluitende 

boomvarings (Hemitelia in die Kaap, 
Cyathea in Natal en die Transvaal) en 
verskeie kenmerkende struike, knoUerige 
plante en kruiesoorte. In die somerreen- 
valdistrikte word epifitiese orgideë op die 
boomstamme en -takke tesame met 'n 
aantal varingsoorte en mos, lewermos en 
korsmos in oorvloed aangetref. 

Ons bosse besit gewoonlik 'n duidelik 
gemerkte rand : dit is hoofsaaklik aan 
bosbrande in die aangrensende plantegroei 
te wyte wat die bosrand vernietig ; en as 
dit dikwels voorkom, knaag hulle iedere 
keer verder en roei eindelik die hele bos 
uit. 

'n Bos is die hoogs ontwikkelde vorm 
van plantgenootskap en word gewoonlik 
as 'n „klimaks" beskou. Dit wil sê, as 
daar in die begin 'n stuk kaal grond in 'n 
geskikte Idimaat is, sal die plantegroei wat 



No. 54 

BLOUKAPPIE. 
POL YG ALA VIRGATA. 




Bladsy 54 



smother the herbaceous growth, and 
finally trees which will kill out the shrubs : 
so that forest is the " climax " of this 
" succession." The whole process may 
take centuries or may be interrupted 
and never reach completion : the chief 
obstacle being human interference in one 
form or another. 

Fires and indiscriminate felling have 
largely modified or ruined much of our 
forest : big trees are now scarce except 
where inaccessible, and many former 
forest areas are now covered by a tangle 
of bead-fern, brambles and other weedy 
growth and will probably never revert to 
their original tree-clad condition. 

One of the aims of Forestry is to 
preserve and improve existing indigenous 
forest, which is the most valuable type 
of plant-covering that the soil can bear — 
both from the point of view of choice timber production and because of the 
importance of native forests in the conservation of water and the improvement 
of the climate. 

In a country with so limited an amount of indigenous forest, moreover, 
special efforts are desirable to encourage the spread and development of this 
beautiful plant-society for its aesthetic value in the landscape. 




No. 55 

WILD BOTTLEBRUSH. 

BAAKHOUT. 

GREYIA SUTHERLANDII. 



Page 55 



sy verskyning daarop maak gewoonlik deur 'n reeks stadiums gaan ; eers *n 
versameling onkruidagtige plante, dan struikgewas wat hierdie gewasse versmoor, 
en eindelik bome wat die struikgewas vernietig : sodat 'n bos die „klimaks" 
van hierdie „proses'* is. Die hele proses kan eeue duur of kan gestuit word om 
nooit voltooiing te bereik nie : die vernaamste liinderpaal waarvan kan wees 
die tussenkoms van die mens in die een of ander vorm. 

Bosbrande en die voor-die-voet weg uitkap van bome het 'n groot deel 
van ons bosse verander of geruïneer : groot bome is nou skaars, behalwe waar 
hulle nie bereik kan word nie, en baie streke wat voorheen bosgebied was, word 
nou deur 'n netwerk van kraalvaring, braambos en ander struike bedek en sal 
waarskynlik nooit weer liul oorspronklike boom-bedekte aanskyn verkry nie. 

Ejn van die doeleindes van Bosbou is om die bestaande inheemse bosse 
te bewaar en te verbeter, aangesien dit die waardevoiste soort plantegroei is wat 
die grond kan dra — sowel uit die oogpunt van 'n bron van goeie timmerhout 
as weens die belangrikheid van inheemse bosse vir die bewaring van water en 
die verbetering van die kUmaat. 

Boonop is spesiale pogings wenslik in 'n land met so 'n beperkte bosstreek 
om die verspreiding en ontwikkeling van hierdie skone plantegenootskap aan 
te moedig omdat dit die aantreklikheid van die landskap verhoog. 

No. 56 

HIBISCUS DIVERSIFOLIUS. 




Bladsy 56 



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®®ir3a ^í?sBa(e^!M í?íl® 



ipí ;a> 



C2)cruo : Ine C2)ocielv oj d/Duslies and 



nions 



No. 57 

NATAL REDWOOD 

ROOIHOUT. 
OCHNA NATALITIA. 



LARGE areas of the Union are covered by some form of scrub vegetation, 
by which is meant a fairly close plant society dominated by shrubs. 
These may be of very various stature but are mostly evergreen and 
have small hard leaves. Practically all the Cape coastal mountains have this 
type of vegetation on their open slopes, extending from base to summit, and 
the lower hills and flats also. 

The number of different species of plants composing the Cape scrub is 
enormous. Familiar are the Protea Family, the Heaths, the Buchus, such 
small-flowered Compositae as the Slangbos, Rhenosterbos, Kapokbos and 
Blombos, Everlastings, Taai- 
bos and Pelargoniums : and 
mixed with these shrubs we 
find a vast number of bulbous 
plants (especially of the Ixia 
Family), Reeds, Sedges and 
numerous herbaceous plants. 
Aromatic plants abound, but 
on the other hand succulents 
and grasses are rare. 

Annual plants are not 
numerous except where the 
soil is a loose sand and the 
plant society is an " open " 
one, that is, where there are 




Page 57 



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C2) Irutkóeivasse : \^'ie ^j nnoolsKab va 

en XjLl \íïlaievs 



n 




ossies 



No. 58 

WILD BEGONIA. 
BEGONIA SUTHERLANDII , 



GROOT dele van die Unie word deur een of ander vorm van struikgewas 
bedek, wat beteken 'n taamlik digte plantegemeenskap waarvan struik- 
gewasse die meerderheid uitmaak. Hulle kan van verskillende groottes 
wees, maar hulle is gewoonlik ewiggroen en besit klein harde blaartjies. Die 
oop hellings van feitlik al die Kaapse kusberge word deur hierdie soort plante 

begroei, wat strek van die voet tot aan 
die top, en wat ook op die laer heuwels 
en vlaktes aangetref word. 

Die getal verskillende plantesoorte 
waaruit die Kaapse struikgewasse bestaan 
is enorm. Die bekendste is die Protea- 
familie, die Heide, die Boegoe, sulke klein- 
blommige Compositae soos die Slangbos, 
Renosterbos, Kapokbos en Blombos, 
Sewejaartjies, Taaibos en Pelargoniums : 
en, gemeng met hierdie struikgewasse, is 
daar 'n reuse-reeks bolgewasse (veral van 
die Txia-familie), Riet, Rietgras en talryke 
klein loruidagtige plantesoorte. Geurige 
plantesoorte word in oorvloed aangetref, 
maar aan die ander kant is vetplante en 
grass e skaars. 

Jaarplante is nie talryk nie, 
behalwe waar die grond los sand en die 




Bladsji 58 




No. 59 

KANNABAST. 
DIAS COTINIFOLIA. 



Spaces of bare soil between the perennial 
plants. This type of country, sometimes 
known as sandveld, occupies extensive 
areas in the Western Cape coastal belt. 
Its summer aspect is unprepossessing, 
but during the winter and early spring 
it presents a spectacle of great beauty 
through the flowering of the perennial 
and bulbous plants, e.g. species of 
Gazania, Arctotis, Oxalis, Grielum, Mes- 
embryanthemum, Ixia, Lachenalia, Babi- 
ana, and also of a great number of 
brilliantly coloured annuals, among which 
are species of Ursinia, Dimorphotheca, 
Nemesia, Diascia, Charieis, Dorotheanthus, 
Heliophila, etc. Many of these sandveld 
plants are illustrated in this volume and 
are among South Africa's outstanding 
contributions to the gardens of the woild. 

Many of the shrubs composing the scrub society possess small narrow 
leaves of a firm, dry texture : their small size is compensated by their presence 
in large numbers on the plant. These leaves are often called " cricoid " 
because they occur typically in the heaths (Erica). So characteristic are these 
leaves of the Cape mountain and hillside scrub that it is sometimes known as 
" fynbos." They are found not only among the heaths but also in many 
species of the Daisy, Brunia, Verbena, Buchu, Daphne and Cat-thorn families, 
etc. These cricoid leaves are often grooved and stomata (" breathing pores ") 
are only present in the groove. No doubt this leaf-form has some connection 
with drought-resistance. 

Other examples of drought-resistance among scrub plants are the aromatic 
oils so many of them contain (e.g. the Buchus), which have been shown to 
reduce the rate of loss of water ; a dense clothing of hairs on leaves and stems, 
e.g. in the Everlastings ; and the frequent grey colour due to a thin coating 
of wax. Usually the scrub is easy to walk tlirough, but in some areas prickly 
plants, e.g. the Wag-'n-bietjie (Asparagus), and Steekbos (Cliifortia) are present 
and make progress more difficult. 

These scrub societies are very inflammable, and are unfortunately being 
impoverished in every way by frequent fires : many of these fires are caused 
by accident or carelessness, but a large number are deliberately started with 



Page 59 



plantegenootskap 'n „oop" tipe is, d.w.s. waar daar lappe kaal grond tussen die 
meerjarige plante is. Hierdie soort landstreek wat dikwels bekend is as sandveld, 
beslaan 'n omvangryke oppervlakte in die kusstreek van Wes-Kaapland. In 
die somer is dit onopvallend, maar gedurende die winter en die vroeë lente bied 
dit 'n skouspel van die grootste prag in die vorm van die bloeisels van die meer- 
jarige en bolagtige plante, soos b.v. soorte Gazania, Arctotis, Oxalis, 
Grielum, Mesembryanthemum, Ixia, Lachenalia, Babiana, asook 'n groot aantal 
helder gekleurde jaarplante, waaronder Ursinia, Dimorphoteca, Nemesia, Diascia, 
Charieis, Dorotheanthus, Heliophila, ens. Baie van hierdie sandveldplante word 
in hierdie bundel gewys en word onder Suid-Afrika se beste bydraes tot die 
tuine van die wêreld gereken. 

Baie van die struike wat die struikgewasgenootskap uitmaak, besit klein 
smal blaartjies van 'n vaste, droë geaardheid : hul kleinheid word vergoed deur 
die aanwesigheid van hul groot getal op die plant. Hierdie blaartjies word 
dikwels „heiagtig" genoetn, omdat hulle tipies is van die heide (Erica). Hierdie 
blaartjies is kenmerkend van die Kaapse berg- en heuwelstruikgewasse en dit 
staan dus somtyds bekend as „fynbos". Hulle word nie alleen onder die heide 
aangetref nie, maar ook onder baie soorte Madeliefie, Brunia, Verbena, Boegoe, 

Daphne en Katdoringfamilies, ens. Hierdie 
heiagtige blare besit dikwels groehes, en 
huidmondjies is slegs in die groef aan- 
wesig. Hierdie blaarvorm staan ongetwy- 
feld in verband met weerstand teen droogte. 
Ander voorbeelde van weerstand teen 
droogte onder struikgewasse is die geurige 
oliesoorte wat so baie van hulle bevat 
(b.v. Boegoe) wat soos bewys is, die 
verdamping van water verminder ; verder 
'n digte lagie hare op die blaartjies en 
stammetjies, b.v. in die gevai van die 
Sewejaartjies ; en dikwels die grys kleur 
wat toe te skryf is aan 'n dun lagie was. 
'n Mens kan gewoonlik maklik deur 
struikgewas loop, maar in sommige gebiede 
is daar steekplante, b.v. die Wag-'n-bietjie 
(Asparagus), en Steekbos (Cliffortia) wat 
hinderlik is. 

Hierdie struikgewasgenootskappe is 



No. 60 

MIELIE-HEIDE. 
MEALIE HEATH. 
ERICA ABIETINA. 




Bladsy 60 



the mistaken idea of improving the 
grazing, which is normally very poor 
and really unsuitable for stock in this 
type of country. 

The scrub has also been largely 
destroyed by ploughing, especially in 
the south-west Cape, and a vast acreage 
once botanically very rich has been re- 
placed by the monotony of wheatlands, 
fallow and rhenoster-veld. 

In the Cape Peninsula what is essen- 
tially a scrub society may contain scattered 
trees — for instance the Silver Tree (Leuca- 
dendron). At Kirstenbosch also may 
be seen how, under conditions of greater 
protection from fire, other trees may 
also obtain a foothold in the scrub and 
so prepare the way for true forest : such 
pioneer trees are the Keurboom (Vir- 
gilia), the Keurtje (Podalyria), the Pendooring and Sybas (Gymnosporia), the 
Wild Olives (Olea), the Wild Peach (Kiggelaria) and several others. If undis- 
turbed by man and by fires it is probable that much of the mountain scrub in 
the Cape Province would gradually be invaded by trees and thus be converted 
into forest. Unfortunately the tendency is all the other way, and human agencies 
are converting much of our mountains into what is almost semi-desert. 




No. 61 

ERICA AXILLIFLORA. 



Page 61 



uiters ontvlambaar en word ongelukkig op elke manier deur brand wat dikwels 
voorkom, uitgedun : baie van hierdie brande word per ongeluk of deur agtelosig- 
lieid veroorsaak, maar 'n groot aantal daarvan word opsetlik veroorsaak onder 
die wanbegrip dat dit die weiveld sal verbeter, wat gewoonlik baie armoedig en 
uit die aard van die saak ongeskik is vir vee. 

Die struikgewas is ook grotendeels deur die omploeg van grond, veral in 
Suidwes-Kaapland vernietig, en 'n uitgestrekte gebied wat voorheen baie ryk aan 
plantegroei was, word nou deur eentonige saai- en braakland en renosterveld 
vervang. 

In die Kaapse Skiereiland kan piantegroei wat bepaald 'n struikgewas- 
genootskap is, ook borne insluit — by voorbeeld, die Witteboom (Leucadendron). 
Op Kirstenbosch kan ook gesien word hoedat, danksy toestande wat groter 
beskerming teen vuur verleen, ander bome ook 'n vatplek in die struikgewas 
kan kry en aldus die weg vir 'n regie woud baan : sulke pionierbome is die 
Keurboom (Virgilia), die Keurtjie (Podalyria), die Pendoring en Sybas 
(Gymnosporia), die Wilde Olywe (Olea), die Wilde Perske (Kiggelaria) en 
verskeie ander. Indien die mens en vuur hulle ongehinderd sou gelaat het, is 
dit waarskynlik dat baie van die bergstruikgewas in die Kaapprovinsie geleidelik 
deur bome verplaas en dus in boswereld 
verander sou geword het. Ongelukkig 
is die neiging net die teenoorgestelde en is 
die mens besig om baie van ons berge in wat 
feitlik as half-woestyn beskou kan word, 
te verander. 



No. 62 

RIVERSDAL-HEIDE. 

LANTERN HEATH. 

ERICA BLENNA. 




Bladsji 6; 



® H? Si 



® ÍSÏ í? 



IiíFíaa(BSiSÍ IF3L® 



ïp) hy 



^iyXaroo^ G)emt = <^eserl and \=JJeHerl : //i( 
C2)ocieíies oj (ZJ nirsllaíici 



No. 63 

ERICA FOLIACEA. 



IT is estimated that about one-third of the surface of the Union is occupied 
by vegetation of these types. The principal factor in producing them is 
low and erratic rainfall, from an average of about ten inches per annum 
down to almost nil. 

Typical Karoo occurs over large areas of hills and plains in the Cape 
Province. Between the River Sonder End Mountains and the Langeberg is 
the Robertson Karoo : between the Langeberg and the Swartberg is the little 
Karoo : between the Swartberg and the Komsberg-Nieuweveld escarpment 
and extending far eastwards is the Great Karoo : between the Cedarberg- 
Swartruggens Mountains and 
the Roggeveld escarpment is 
the Tanqua and Doom Karoo : 
and Karoo vegetation also 
occurs over considerable areas 
in the Van Rhynsdorp and 
Namaqualand divisions. j 

Karoo vegetation is 
typically composed of scat- 
tered small bushes with a 
good deal of bare soil or 
rock in between. The bushes 
range from a few inches to 
two or three feet in height, 
and there are sometimes 







Page 63 



m>^mm 




!3 



n 



RED DISA 



DISA UNIFLORA 



ROOI DISA 



Disa uniflora, the Red Disa, the " Pride of Table Mountain," is one of the 
most distinctive orchids in the world, both in form and colouring. It 
grows in the peaty banks of mountain streams and in mossy places on 
krantzes where water trickles, and flowers in the summer months (January 
to March). It occurs in the mountains of the western coastal belt from 
the Cedarbergen to George. It is difficult and rare in cultivation, but has 
been successfully grown in the open at Kirstenbosch. 

Disa uniflora, die rooi disa, die „Trots van Tafelberg", is een van die mees 
tiperende orgideë in die wêreld, beide wat betref die vorm en kleur daarvan. 
Dit groei op die veenagtige oewers van bergspruitjies en in mosagtige 
plekke op kranse waar water deursyfer, en dit blom gedurende die somer- 
maande (Januarie tot Maart). Dit word op die berge van die westelike 
kusstreek van die Cedarberge tot by George aangetref. Dit is moeilik om 
dit in 'n tuin te kweek en dit word selde daar aangetref, dog dit is met 
sukses in die tuin op Kirstenbosch gekweek. 



®m 



®aíD-^!?!a!líK£^^M§íl ÍPÍLS^KÍ1PÍ1©ÍE®I1ÍÍ 



enooiskappe van die ^crJJorslana 




No. 64 

VEERHEIDE. 

PRINCE OF WALES HEATH. 

ERICA PERSPICUA. 



DAAR is bereken dat ongeveer een-derde van die oppervlakte van die 
Unie deur hierdie soort plantegroei bedek word. Die vernaamste 
faktor wat daarvoor verantwoordelik is, is 'n karige en ongereëlde reënval, 
wat van gemiddeld tien duim tot byna niks per jaar bedra. 

Tipiese Karoo beslaan groot gebiede op heuwels en vlaktes in die Kaap- 

provinsie. Tussen die berge van Rivier- 
sonderend en die Langeberg is die Robert- 
son-karoo : tussen die Langeberg en die 
Swartberg is die Klein Karoo : tussen die 
Swartberg en die Komsberg-Nuweveld- 
reeks en wat in 'n oostelike rigting uitstrek, 
is die Groot Karoo : tussen die Cedarberg- 
Swartruggensberge en die Roggeveldreeks 
is die Tanqua en Doring-karoo : en 
Karoo-plantegroei is ook op uitgestrekte 
gebiede in die Van Rhynsdorpse en Nama- 
kwalandse afdelings aanwesig. 

Die tipiese Karoo-plantegroei bestaan 
uit verspreide klein bossies met heelwat 
kaal grond of rots tussenin. Die hoogte 
van die bossies loop van 'n paar duim tot 
twee of drie voet, en daar is somtyds 
alleenstaande groter struikgewasse 
(Ghwarrie, Taaibos, Driedoring, Lycium, 




Bladsy 64 




isolated larger slirubs (Guarri, Taaibos, 
Driedoorn, Lycium, etc). Although small, 
owing to the aridity of the climate and 
to more or less severe grazing by sheep 
and goats, these bushes may be of great 
age, often having twisted, split and almost 
barkless stems bearing tufts of a few 
small leaves. Compos itae abound, for 
instance the various kinds of Karoobos 
(Pentzia), Bitterbos (Chrysocoma), Kapok- 
bos (Eriocephalus), Pteronia, Relhania, 
Tripteris, etc. The majority of these 
plants are aromatic, containing oils, gums 
and resins, which play their part in drought 
resistance. 

Most characteristic of the Karoo, 
however, are the innumerable varieties 
of succulent plants which make it a 
veritable wonderland for the botanist. 
The Vijgie Family (Mesembryanthemum 
and allied genera) is the most abundant. Some species such as the DoringvygÍe 
(M. spinosufjj) are locally dominant, and there are many others, both shrubby 
and trailing, which are so plentiful as to colour the landscape with their 
brilliant flowers in good seasons. Moreover, the Karoo is the home of the 
so-called stemless Vygies or Stone Plants, of strange compact forms which are 
among the chief marvels of the plant world, and are well known to the botanist 
and to the collector under the names of Lithops, Conophytum, Gibbaeum, 
Rimaria, Pleiospilos, Argyroderma, etc. 

Succulence is also found in Karoo plants belonging to the most varied 
affinities. Thus the Lily Family is represented by the Aloes, Gasterias and 
Haworthias ; the Euphorbia Family by a large number of very diverse forms of 
Euphorbia known as Melkbos, Vingerpol, Noorsdoring, etc. ; the Stapelia 
Family by a host of stem-succulents belonging to the genera Stapelia, Caralluma, 
Huernia, Piaranthus, Hoodia, Trichocaulon, etc. ; the Crassula Family by the 
grotesque thick-stemmed Botterboom and other Cotyledons, as well as by 
innumerable species of Crassula, large and small ; the Geranium Family by the 
well-known Bushman's Candle (Sarcocaulon) ; the Compositae by members of 
the genera Kleinia and Senecio : and many others could be mentioned. 



No. 63 

ELIM HEATH. 

BELLETJIEHEIDE. 

ERICA REGIA. 



Page 65 



ens.). Alhoewel hierdie bossies klein is weens die droogheid van die klimaat, 
en as gevolg van die somtyds uitputtende weiding deur skape en bokke, kan 
hulle baie oud wees, met dikwels gedraaide, gesplete en feidik baslose stamme 
met toppe met kwassies blaartjies daaraan. Compositae is in oorvloed aanwesig, 
soos by voorbeeld die verskillende soorte Karoobos (Pentzia), Bitterbos 
(Ciirysocoma), Kapokbos (Eriocephalus), Pteronia, Relhania, Tripteris, ens. 
Die meerderheid van hierdie plante is geurig, aangesien hulle olie, gom en harpuis 
bevat wat 'n rol speel in die weerstand teen droogte. 

Wat egter uiters kenmerkend van die Karoo is, is die enorme verskeidenheid 
vetplante wat 'n ware towerland vir die plantkundige verteenwoordig. Die 
Vygiefamilie (Mesembryanthemum en soortgelyke families) is die oorvloedigste 
aanwesig. Sommige soorte soos die Doringvy {M. spinosum) is plaaslik opval- 
lend en daar is baie ander soorte, sowel wat stoel as wat rank, wat so oorvloedig 
aanwesig is dat hulle die landskap in goeie seisoene met hul kleurryke bloeisels 
skilder. Boonop is die Karoo die tuiste van die sogenoemde stamlose Vygies 
of Klipplante, met 'n eienaardige vaste struktuur wat tot die vernaamste wonders 
van die plantwêreld gereken kan word, en wat bekend is aan die plantkundige 
en die versamelaar onder die name Lithops, Conophytum, Gibbaeum, Rimaria, 

Pleiospilos, Argyroderma, ens. 

Sappigheid word ook aangetref in 
Karoo-plante wat tot die mees uiteen- 
lopende soorte behoort. So word die 
Leliefamilie verteenwoordig deur die 
Alwynsoorte, Gasterias en Haworthias ; 
die Euphorbia-familie deur 'n groot aantal 
uiters uiteenlopende vorms van Euphorbia 
bekend as Melkbos, Vingerpol, Noors- 
doring, ens. ; die Stapelia-familie word 
verteenwoordig deur 'n reuse-reeks stam- 
sukkulente wat behoort tot die geslagte 
Stapelia, Caralluma, Huernia, Piaranthus, 
Hoodia, Trichocaulon, ens. ; die Crassula- 
f ami lie word verteenwoordig deur die 
groteske, dikstammige Botterboom en 
ander Cotyledons, sowel as deur die 
talryke soorte Crassula, groot en klein ; 
die Malvafamilie deur die welbekende 
Boesmanskers (Sarcocaulon) ; die 



No. 66 

ERICA SUBDIVARICATA. 




Bladsy 66 



in addition a large number of " bulb- 
ous " plants are present, many having 
water-storing tubers and bulb-scales, so 
that they can be regarded as underground 
succulents. Many of these only produce 
leaves and flowers in seasons of more 
than average rainfall. The same applies 
to the annuals, of great variety and often 
with small but brightly coloured flow^ers, 
which may lie dormant in the form of 
seeds for years, but in a good season 
germinate and cover the bare soil between 
the bushes with a carpet of fugitive 
colour. 

In the more elevated part of the 
Cape Province north of the Nieuweveld 
and east of the Roggeveld escarpments the 
vegetation consists of scattered bushes 
just as in the Karoo, but succulent plants 
are scarce and there is much more grass, 
especially in the districts with frequent summer thunderstorms. This region 
is sometimes called the Upper Karoo. 

Finally, in regions of thin soil or of drifting sand under high temperatures 
and very low rainfall we find true desert, as in the neighbourhood of the lower 
Orange River, from Upington to the sea. Desert is also developed on the grand 
scale in South- West Africa on the rocks, gravels and sand-dunes of the Namib. 
Vegetation is well-nigh absent, only a few widely separated deep-rooting plants 
occurring on the flats and an occasional succulent in rock-crevices on the 
koppies. 




No. 67 

BOSLUISBLOM. 
ERICA VIRIDIPURPUREA. 



Page 67 



Compositae deur lede van die geslagte Kleinia en Senecio ; en daar is baie 
ander wat genoem kan word. 

Boonop is daar 'n groot aantai „bolagtige" plante aanwesig, baie waarvan 
waterbewarende bolle en bolskubbe besit, sodat hulle as ondergrondse vetplante 
beskou kan word. Baie daarvan blom slegs in seisoene met meer as die gemid- 
delde reënval. Dieselfde is van toepassing op die jaarplante, wat 'n groot ver- 
skeidenheid uitmaak en wat dikwels klein, dog helder gekleurde blommetjies 
besit, wat jare lank in die vorm van saad rustend kan lê, maar wat gedurende 'n 
goeie seisoen ontkiem en die kaal grond tussen die bossies met 'n veelkleurige 
tapyt oordek. 

In die hoër geleë gebied van die Kaapprovinsie, noord van die Nuweveld 
en oos van die Roggeveldbergreeks, bestaan die plantegroei uit verspreide bossies, 
net soos in die Karoo, maar sappige plante is skaars en daar is baie meer gras, 
veral in die distrikte wat dikwels onderhewig is aan donderstorms gedurende die 
somer. Hierdie gebied word somtyds die Bo-Karoo genoem. 

Ten slotte tref ons egte woestyn aan, in streke met 'n dun grondlaag of met 
dryfsand wat aan 'n hoe temperatuur blootgestel is, en met 'n baie lae reënval, soos 
in die omgewing van die benedeloop van Oranjerivier, vanaf Upington tot by 
die see. Woestyn is ook sterk in Suidwes-Afrika op die rotse, gruis en sandduine 
van die Namib ontwikkel. Plantegroei is weldra afwesig, met slegs 'n paar 
wyd uitmekaar verspreide plante met lang wortels wat op die vlaktes en af en toe 
'n vetplant wat in rotsskeure op die koppies voorkom. 



//■w^ 



No. 68 

PLUMBAGO. 
PLUMBAGO CAPENSIS. 




Bladsy 68 



® líjí ÍEl 



®i0^is a!?siíi(O^S3 íríL(Díasi 



^jrassland : Ine Qylíí mil able ^l/elcl 



No. 69 

PINK STATICE. 

STRANDROOS. 

STATICE ROSEA. 



THE Grass Family is a very large one and is extensively represented in the 
Union. The majority of grasses are plants of summer rainfall conditions : 
some are annuals, but most of them are perennials of different kinds, 
some forming tufts or tussocks, others trailing over the soil or beneath the 
surface and forming a continuous ground-cover or turf. Districts with a 
predominant winter rainfall have a considerable number of species of grasses, 
but they rarely form a feature of the landscape except where there is soil 
moisture in summer or where an occasional summer rain can be relied upon. 
In the summer rainfall districts, on the other hand, grasses are exceedingly 

plentiful, both in species and 
in individuals ; and over great 
areas of the Transvaal, the 
Orange Free St'ate, the uplands 
of Natal, Basutoland and some 
high ground in the Cape 
Province the prevailing type 
of vegetation is that known 
as grassveld, in which grasses 
are definitely the dominant 
plants. 

Grassveld is mainly an 
upland type of vegetation, 
occurring on the rolling hills 
and plains of the central plateau 




Page 69 



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wnw)' ^wmn^^^^^^ IP a. li 1Í3 ir !(§ si ® !E a 




rasve 



U: 




o 



le 



KDíiidelí 



osc 




í 



aKte 



DIE grasfamilie is baie omvangryk en ruimskoots in die Unie verteen- 
woordig. Die meerderheid van grassoorte is plante wat in somerreën- 
valstreke aanwesig is : sommige daarvan is jaarplante, maar die meeste 
van huUe is meerjarige plante van uiteenlopende aard, sommige waarvan kwassies 
of polle vorm, ander waarvan bo die grond of onder die grond rank en 'n on- 
onderbroke grondbedekking of tapyt vorm. Distrikte met 'n oorwegende 
winterreënval besit 'n aansienlike aantal grassoorte, maar hulle vorm selde 'n 
kenmerkende deel van die landskap, behalwe waar daar grondvogtigheid in die 
somer aanwesig is of waar 'n bui reën in die somer te wagte kan wees. In die 
somerreënvaldistrikte word 
grassoorte daarenteen in oor- 
vloed aangetref, wat betref so- 
wel species as afsonderlike lede ; 
en op uitgestrekte gebiede in 
die Transvaal, die Oranje-Vry- 
staat, die hoogland van Natal, 
Basoetoland en op hooglig- 
gende gebied in die Kaappro- 
vinsie is die oorwegende soort 
plantegroei die wat bekend 
staan as grasveld, waar gras- 
soorte definitief die botoon 



No. 70 

WILDE JASMYN. 

WILD JASMINE. 

JASMINUM TORTUOSUM. 



voer. 



Grasveld kan hoofsaaklik 




Bladsy 70 




No. 71 

SEBAEA EXACOIDES. 



at altitudes above 4,000 feet. For this 
reason it is often called highveld. This 
region has practically all its rain in the 
form of heavy showers in the summer 
months, and under these conditions the 
perennial grasses grow rapidly and the 
veld is green, variegated with the red 
or brown bare soil between the grass- 
tufts, as far as the eye can reach. In the 
winter, however, rain is rare, and this 
dryness combined with the occurrence 
of frosts almost every night prevents 
the growth of the grasses. The leaves 
and the upper parts of the stems dry 
off completely and the landscape becomes 
brown or straw-colour according to the 
kinds of grasses present. Life remains 
in the heart of the grass tufts, however ; 
and not only the grasses but many other 
associated plants with underground resting 

organs remain dormant until soaking rains and higher soil temperatures stimu- 
late them into renewed growth. 

In typical grassveld the whole vegetation is herbaceous : but a curious 
feature is that woody plants (shrubs and small trees) may occur on rocky 
koppies and randjies in grassland areas, where perhaps they might hardly 
be expected. 

The most abundant of the numerous grass species composing highveld 
is the Red Grass or Rooigras {Themeda triandrd)^ which dominates thousands 
of square miles of country, and forms valuable pasture for cattle. If over- 
grazed, however, and especially if subjected to repeated veld fires, the Red Grass 
may deteriorate and be replaced by other less valuable species. Another frequent 
effect of veld-burning is to reduce the total amount of protective covering on 
the soil and so to bring about erosion. In the plains this takes the form of 
wind-erosion and sheet-erosion, and on steep slopes dongas may form during 
heavy rains and in a few years may ruin large tracts of valuable 
ground. 

Grassveld varies a good deal in composition in different places according 
to the amount of rainfall and the depth and physical qualities of the soil. At 



Page 71 



tot die plantegroei gereken word wat op hoogliggende terrein, op die deinende 
heuwels en vlaktes van die sentrale plateau, 4,000 voet bokant die seespieël 
aangetref word. Om hierdie rede word dit dikwels hoëveld genoem. Hierdie 
gebied kry feitlik al sy reën in die vorm van swaar stortreëns gedurende die 
somermaande en in sulke omstandighede groei die meerjarige grassoorte vinnig, 
en so ver as wat die oog kan sien is die veld groen, behalwe waar dit onder- 
breek word deur die rooi of bruin grond tussen die graspolle. In die winter is 
reën egter skaars en hierdie dorheid, gepaard met die feitlik alnagtelike ryp, 
verhinder die groei van die grassoorte. Die blare en die boonste dele van die 
stamme verdroog geheel-en-al en die landskap word bruin of strooikleurig, 
volgens die grassoorte aanwesig. Daar is egter lewe in die hart van die gras- 
polle ; en nie alleen grassoorte nie, maar bale ander verwante plante met onder- 
grondse rusorgane bly rustend totdat deurdringende reëns en hoër grond- 
temperature huUe tot vernude groeikrag aanspoor. 

Die hele plantegroei van tipiese grasveld is kruidagtig : dog 'n eienaardige 
kenmerk is dat houterige plantegroei (struikgewasse en klein boompies) op rots- 
agtige koppies en rantjies in grass treekgebiede aanwesig kan wees, waar hulle 
mislden nouliks sou verwag word. 

Die oorvloedigste van die talryke 
grassoorte wat op die hoeveld aangetref 
word, is die Rooigras (Themeda triandra) 
wat duisende vierkante myl beslaan en 
waardevolle welding vir beeste lewer. As 
dit egter oorbewei word, en veral as dit 
aan herhaalde veldbrand blootgestel word, 
kan die Rooigras verswak en deur ander 
minder waardevolle soorte vervang word, 
'n Verdere dikwels voorkomende uit- 
werking van veldbrand is om die totale 
hoeveelheid beskermende bedekking op 
die grond te verminder en aldus grond- 
verspoeling in die hand te werk. Op die 
vlaktes kom dit voor in die vorm van 
wind-erosie en „blad"-erosie en op steil 
hellings kan donga's gedurende swaar 
reëns gevorm word en kan groot stukke 
waardevolle grond binne 'n paar jaar 
waardeloos gemaak word. 



No. 72 

STROPHANTHUS SPECIOSUS. 




Bladsy 72 



(^: 



its margins it gradually shades off into 
other types of vegetation. In some 
areas thorn-trees and others appear, thus 
leading on to savannah : and in other 
parts a transition to Karoo is produced 
by the appearance of small shrubs such 
as the Bitterbos (Chrysocoma) and the 
Karoobos (Pentzia). 

The grassland areas are the most 
important part of the Union from the 
agricultural point of view. Cattle-raising 
is widespread, the natural veld being 
used for pasture : it is rarely made into 
hay, but special crops are grown to some 
extent for hay-making and ensilage. In 
districts with a good rainfall large quan- 
tities of mealies are produced. In the 
Natal mist-belt plantations of wattles 
{Acacia mollissima) are an important source 
of tanning materials. Eucalypts are 
planted for shelter and poles in highveld localities where indigenous trees are 
entirely absent. Some deciduous frost-resistant fruits are grown. Sheep are 
also grazed in districts of short grass, e.g. in the upland grass areas of the 
Eastern Cape. 

The attractiveness for pastoral purposes of the seemingly endless rolling 
grassveld was one of the principal factors which led to the early colonisation 
of the Free State, Transvaal and the Natal highlands through the Great Trek 
and subsequent migrations from the Cape Colony. 




No. 73 

CEROPEGIA AMPLIATA. 




Page 73 



No. 73 

CEROPEGIA AMPLIATA. 






its margins it gradually shades off into 
other types of vegetation. In some 
areas thorn-trees and others appear, thus 
leading on to savannah : and in other 
parts a transition to V ^ 
by the appearance of 
as the Bitterbos (Chr 
Karoobos (Pentzia). 

The grassland ar( 
important part of the 
agricultural point of vi< 
is widespread, the n: 
used for pasture : it is 
hay, but special crops a 
extent for hay-making 
districts with a good r; 
titles of mealies are p 
Natal mist-belt planta 
{Acacia mollissimd) are ai 

of tanning materials. 

planted for shelter and poles in highveld localities where indigenous trees are 
entirely absent. Some deciduous frost-resistant fruits are grown. Sheep are 
also grazed in districts of short grass, e.g. in the upland grass areas of the 
Eastern Cape. 

The attractiveness for pastoral purposes of the seemingly endless rolling 
grassveld was one of the principal factors which led to the early colonisation 
of the Free State, Transvaal and the Natal highlands through the Great Trek 
and subsequent migrations from the Cape Colony. 





^..^ 



Page 73 



Grasveld wissel baie af in samestelling op verskillende plekke volgens die 
reënval en die diepte en fisiese eienskappe van die grond. By sy grense slaan dit 
geleidelik oor na ander soorte plantegroei. In sommige streke maak doring- en 
ander soorte bome hul verskyning, wat die voorposte is van savanna : en in 
ander streke word 'n oorgang na die Karoo-lands kap deur die aanwesigheid 
van klein struike soos die Bitterbos (Chrysocoma) en die Karoobos (Pentzia) 
gekenmerk. 

Uit die landboukundige oogpunt beskou, is die grasveldgebiede die be- 
langrikste deel van die Unie. Beesboerdery word op groot skaal beoefen, aan- 
gesien die natuurlike veld vir welding dien : die grassoorte word selde vir hooi 
gebruik, maar spesiale oeste word tot 'n sekere mate gekweek vir die maak 
van hooi en vir kuilvoer. In distrikte met 'n goeie reënval word groot hoeveel- 
hede mielies geproduseer. Die plantasies wattelbome (Acacia mollissima) in 
die Natalse mistige streek vorm 'n belangrike bron van looibas. Bloekombome 
word in hoëveldstreke vir skulling sowel as vir pale aangeplant, aangesien in- 
heemse bome heeltemal afwesig is. Sommige somervrugte wat bestand is teen 
ryp word ook gekweek. Skaapboerdery word ook in distrikte met kort gras 
beoefen, b.v. in die hoogliggende grasstreke van Oos-Kaapland. 

Die aanloklikheid van die skynbaar 
eindelose deinende grasveld as 'n weiveld, 
was een van die vernaamste faktore wat 
tot die vroeë kolonisasie van die Vrystaat, 
Transvaal en die Natalse hoogland met 
die Groot Trek en daaropvolgende uit- 
togte uit die Kaapkolonie gelei het. 



No. 74 

AASBLOM. 
CARRION FLOWER. 
STAPELIA SCHINZII. 




Bladsy 74 



^ 10 IB 



©ISIÍÍI! liirSiaSS^M I?!L®!aii 



C2favannan and CyOuslai^elcl : m* 
dJa rk like ^14^1 Idi 



\erness 



I 



No. 75 

CAPE FORGET-ME-NOT. 

YSTERGRAS. 

ANCHUSA RIPARIA. 



THESE types of vegetation may be regarded as being essentially grassveld 
with a more or less copious sprinkling of trees. They occur in summer 
rainfall districts, usually at a lower altitude than pure grassveld, and con- 
sequently with less frost in winter. The number of trees present in any area 
depends largely on the amount of rainfall, and the actual Idnds of trees are 
very often determined by the type of 
soil, this in its turn being a product 
(under the influence of climate) of the 
underlying rock and the degree of slope. 
The simplest type of savannah is a 
grass-covered plain with widely separated 
woody plants, very frequently species 
of Acacia and other related genera. These 
may be mere bushes a few feet high, often 
with formidable thorns, or they may be 
small single-stemmed trees up to 30 feet 
in height, often with flat crowns. The 
shade cast by these trees is very small 
and produces practically no effect on the 
ground vegetation. 

As climatic conditions improve the 
trees may be closer and taller, but they 
still do not form true forest and the grass 
vegetation spreads uniformly beneath them i' 




Page 75 



©m 



UJa®» l^fiEaiK^^Mgil IPILIi S3^S©!íi®!ia 



Cyavanna en Cyóosvelcl : \rJhe G/arka^li^e 

lúu ■ 

L4/iiderms 



No. 76 

WILDE DAGGA. 

MINARET FLOWER. 

LEONOTIS LEONURUS. 



HiERDiE soort plantegroei kan as veral grasveld beskou word, met borne 
in 'n meerdere of mindere mate aanwesig. Hulle word in somerreënval- 
distrikte, veral op 'n laer vlak as suiwer grasveld aangetref en gevolglik 
is daar minder ryp in die winter. Die aantal home in enige gebied aanwesig, 
hang hoofsaaklik van die reënval af en die werklike soorte home word dikwels 

deur die soort grond bepaal, wat op sy 
beurt 'n produk (onder die invloed van 
klimaat) van die onderliggende rots en die 
steilte van die helling is. 

Die eenvoudigste soort savanna is 'n 
met grasbedekte vlakte met wydverspreide 
houterige plante wat dikwels uit soorte 
Acacia en ander verwante geslagte bestaan. 
Hulle kan bloot bossies wees van 'n paar 
voet hoog, en dikwels met gedugte dorings, 
of hulle kan klein, enkelstammige borne, 
tot 30 voet hoog en dikwels met plat krone, 
wees. Die skaduwee wat deur hierdie 
home gegooi word, is bale klein en het 
feitlik geen uitwerking op die grond- 
plantegroei nie. 

Namate die klimaatsomstandighede 
verbeter, kan die home nader aan mekaar 
en hoër wees, maar hulle maak nog nie 




Bladsy 76 




No. 77 

PLECTRANTHUS SACCATUS. 



in what is almost full sun- 
light. Well developed savan- 
nah of this kind produces 
what is often described as a 
park-like landscape. 

In the Northern Trans- 
vaal we find large areas of 
what is known as bushveM, 
a term which covers a number 
of different types of vegeta- 
tion. In one frequent type the 
trees are fairly closely placed 
and comparatively few of 
them are of the Acacia type, 
the majority having broader 
leaves : nevertheless grasses are abundant between and below these trees, 
and the vegetation cannot be called true forest. Rather it can be compared in 
general appearance with an unpruned, grass-grown orchard. In some districts 
where different types of soil occur, as for instance north of the Magaliesberg, 
we may find Acacia savannah on the grey " turf " plains and orchard-like 
bushveld on the brown soils derived from the igneous rocks. Many charac- 
teristic trees grow in this bushveld society, including the well-known Kiepersol 
(Cussonia), the Dombeyas with their beautiful white or pink flowers, the 
Kafir Orange (Strychnos) and many Combretums with their four-winged 
fruits. Many handsome Aloes, Euphorbias and other succulents are associated 
with it, and the rocky outcrops have their own special flora of drought-resistant 
and " resurrection " plants. 

In the low-veld of the Eastern Transvaal we have a jungle type of country 
familiar to visitors to the Kruger National Park, in which there is an indis- 
criminate tangle of trees of various kinds (Acacias, Combretums, etc.), with 
irregular woody undergrowth, but casting little shade, so that below the tree 
and shrub layers the ground is occupied by abundant grasses. 

Many other types of savannah and bushveld may be recognised. One 
of the most distinct is the Mopani country in the Northern Transvaal, in 
which we have a monotonous landscape dominated by one species of tree, 
the ungraceful Mopani (Copaifera mopane) with its curious bilobed butterfly- 
like leaves. A welcome relief in this and other types of bushveld is the gigantic 



Page 11 








SOUR FIGS 



MESEMBRYANTHEMUM SPP. 

■■■■■■■■«■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■nBBHH 



VYGIES 



wnwim^inuiuui 



There are many hundreds of different kinds of Vygies in the Union, and 
the majority of them have flowers of brilHant colouring, often accentuated 
by the shining surface of the petals. They are all more or less succulent 
and some of them are of very compact form and are drought-resisting in a 
high degree. A few occur on our mountains, but most of them are plants 
of the sandveld. Karoo and semi-desert. 

Daar bestaan bale honderde verskillende soorte vygies in die Unie en die 
meerderheid van hulle besit blomme met pragtige kleure, wat dikwels 
beklemtoon word deur die blinkende oppervlakte van die blomblaartjies. 
Hulle is almal min of meer vetplantagtig en sommige van hulle besit 'n bale 
beknopte vorm en is uiters gehard teen droogte. 'n Paar soorte word op 
ons berge aangetref, maar die meeste van hulle is plante van die sandveld, 
Karoo en half-woestyn. 



ware boswêreld uit nie en die gras tier onder wat feitlik voile sonlig is. Hierdie 
soort savanna wat goed ontwikkel is, verteenwoordig wat dikwels beskryf word 
as 'n parkagtige landskap. 

In Noord-Transvaal vind ons groot streke wat bekendstaan as bosveld, 
'n benaming wat 'n aantal verskillende soorte plantegroei dek. In een soort 
wat dikwels voorkom, is die borne taamlik na aan mekaar en betreklik weinig van 
hulle behoort tot die Acacia-tipe maar die meerderheid van hulle besit breër blare : 
nogtans word gras in oorvloed tussen en onder hierdie borne aangetref en die 
plantegroei kan nie as ware boswêreld beskou word nie. In algemene voorkoms 
kan dit liewer vergelyk word met 'n ongesnoeide, met grasbedekte boord. In 
sommige distrikte waar verskillende soorte grond aanwesig is, soos b.v. noord 
van Magaliesberg, sal ons Acacia-savanna op die grys „turf"-vlaktes, en boord- 
agtige bosveld op die bruin grond wat van stolrots af komstig is, aantref. Talryke 
kenmerkende bome groei in hierdie bosveldgemeenskap, insluitende die bekende 
Kiepersol (Cussonia) die Dombeyas met hul pragtige wit of ligroos blomme, 
die KaiFerlemoen (Strychnos) en bale soorte Combretums met hul viervlerkige 
vrugte. Talryke soorte opvallende Alwyn, Euphorbias en ander vetplante word 
ook daar aangetref en die rotsagtige streke besit hul eie spesiale plantegroei wat 

bestaan uit droogte-weerstaande en her- 
lewende plante. 

In die laeveld van Oos-Transvaal 
tref ons 'n ruier landskap aan, bekend aan 
besoekers van die Kruger-wildtuin, waarin 
daar deurmekaar digte klompe bome is 
(Acacias, Combretums, ens.) met onreël- 
matige houterige kreupelhout, maar wat 
min skaduwee gooi, sodat onderkant die 
boom- en struikgewaslae die grond deur 
weelderige grassoorte in beslag geneem 
word. 

Bale ander soorte savanna- en bosveld- 
wêreld sal herken word. Een van die 
bekendste is die Mopani-streek in die 
Noordelike Transvaal, waar ons 'n een- 
tonige landskap aantref, begroei deur een 
soort boom, die onsierlike Mopani 
{Copaijera mopane) met sy eienaardige, 
tweelobbige, vlinderagtige blare. 



No. 78 

DIASCIA CAPSULARIS. 




n 



Bladsy 78 



and grotesque Baobab (Adansonia) with 
its massive limbs, handsome flowers and 
large oval fruits. Other distinctive trees 
are found along spruits, for instance 
the Fever Tree {Acacia xanthophloea) 
with its greenish-yellow bark, and the 
magnificent Kigelia pinnata with its singu- 
lar hanging sausage-like fruits and large 
dusky flowers. 

The savannah and bushveld of the 
Union must be regarded as southward 
extensions of Central African vegetation, 
where these types are developed over 
enormous tracts of country. 

The savannah and bushveld types 
of country were formerly the principal 
home of the South African big game 
animals, now reduced to relatively small 
numbers (except in special reserves) by 
unrestricted hunting for skins, biltong and 
" sport." To-day they are chiefly used for cattle-ranching, and some fruit 
(especially citrus), tobacco, mealies and cotton are also grown. 

What may perhaps be considered as a special type of bushveld is the 
river-bed vegetation which occurs as a narrow strip or fringe along the 
temporary water-courses in grassveld, karoo and desert. These river-beds, 
on account of the trees they contain, often form striking features in otherwise 
monotonous landscapes. Characteristic trees of such situations (though not 
confined to them) are the Mimosa {Acacia Karoo), the Kareeboom {Rhus 
lancea), and several others, together with shrubby and herbaceous vegetation, 
often of a " brak " nature, grasses and sedges. 




No. 79 

HARVEYA BOLUSII. 



Page 79 



Welkome afwisseling hiervan en van ander soorte bosveld, is die reusagtige en 
groteske Baobab (Adansonia) met sy massiewe takke, pragtige blomme en groot 
ovaal vrugte. Ander opvallende bome word langs die spruite aangetref, b.v. 
die Koorsboom {Acacia xanthophloeá) met sy groengeel bas, en die voortreflike 
Kigelia pinnata met sy eienaardige, hangende worsagtige vrugte en groot donker 
blomme. 

Die savanna-streek en bosveld van die Unie moet as die suidwaartse 
uitbreidings van die SentraaÍ-Afrikaanse plantegroei beskou word, waar hierdie 
soort plantlewe reuse-streke in beslag neem. 

Die savanna-streek en bosveldgebied was voorheen die vernaamste tuiste van 
die Suid-Afrikaanse grootwild, wat nou tot betreklik klein getalle verminder is 
(behalwe in spesiale reservate) weens die onbeperkte jag terwille van velle, 
biltong en vir „sportdoeleindes". Vandag word hulle hoofsaaklik gebruik vir 
weiding vir beeste, terwyl vrugte (veral sitrus), tabak, mielies en katoen ook daar 
gekweek word. 

Wat miskien beskou kan word as 'n spesiale soort bosveld, is die rivier- 
bedding-plantegroei wat voorkom as 'n smal strook of rand langs die tydelike 
waterlope in die grasveld. Karoo en woestyn. Hierdie rivierbeddings vorm 
dikwels 'n treffende kenmerk van 'n anders 
eentonige landstreek, weens die bome in 
hulle aanwesig. Kenmerkende bome van 
sulke streke (alhoewel dit nie tot hulle 
beperk is nie) is die Mimosa {Acacia Karoo), 
die Kareeboom {Rhus lanced), en verskeie 
ander, tesame met struik- en kruidagtige 
plantegroei, dikwels van 'n brak geaard- 
heid, gras en rietgras. 



No. 80 

LEEUBEKKIES. 

NEMESIA. 

NEMESIA STRUMOSA. 




Bladsy 80 



® HJ Si 



® ÍÍJ IP 



lií?íli!l(e^S3 ]?IL® 



I Pi Ji\ 



K^lher Cyypes oj ^lyeóelali 



on 



THE main broad types of vegetation have now been described, but it 
may be remarked that they only represent a rough sorting-out into 
separate sections of a vegetation which is really a continuous whole, 
with all its different parts grading into one another. Always remembering 
this, it is possible to distinguish several other minor types, occurring in special 
habitats, and some of these may now be 
briefly mentioned. 



No. 81 

SUTERA GRANDIFLORA 



COASTAL VEGETATION. 

Many different plant societies may be 
grouped here. Below high-tide-mark on 
rocky coasts there is a very rich seaweed 
" flora " varying chiefly according to the 
temperature of the water. In the warmer 
waters of the Natal coast there may be 
true flowering plants, the so-called Sea 
Grasses, living in the sand between tide- 
marks. Where the shore is muddy and 
the water warm enough the remarkable 
Mangrove trees may form a fringe along 
the water's edge, their breathing-roots 
submerged by the sea at high tide. In 
cooler waters saline mud-flats are often 



fp 




Page 8i 



®m 



mïïm- ^T^^i^s^s^m^iË ]piL^»3ifíi©si®íia 




No. 82 

FORT ST. JOHNS-KLIMOP. 

PORT ST. JOHNS CREEPER. 

PODRANEA RICASOLIANA. 



DIE vernaamste groot soorte plantegroei is nou beskryf, maar daar kan 
aangestip word dat hulle slegs 'n algemene rangskikking in afsonderlike 
afdelings van 'n plantegroei verteenwoordig, wat in werklikheid 'n 
ononderbroke geheel vorm, die verskillende samestellings waarvan met mekaar 
ineensmelt. As dit altyd voor oë gehou word, is dit moontlik om verskeie ander 

minder belangrike tipes wat in besondere 
omgewings voorkom, te onderskei, en 
sommige daarvan kan nou kortliks bespreek 
word. 

KUSPLANTEGROEl. 

Talryke verskillende plantegenoot- 
skappe kan hier saamgevat word. Onder- 
kant die hoogwatermerk op rotsagtige 
kuste bestaan daar 'n baie ryk seewier- 
„plantegroei", wat hoofsaaklik afwissel 
volgens die temperatuur van die water. 
In die warmer waters van die Natalse kus 
kan daar die ware blomplante, die soge- 
naamde Seegrasse, aanwesig wees, wat in 
die sand tussen die hoog- en laagwatermerk 
groei. Waar die kus modderig en die 
water warm genoeg is, kan die merk- 
waardige Manglietbome 'n strook langs 
die kant van die water vorm, met hul 




Biadsy 8: 




f^'f% 



covered by the succulent-stemmed See- 
kraal (Salicornia). Above high-tide-mark 
the wind-blown sea-sand becomes fixed 
in place as the result of a series of pro- 
cesses of colonisation by plants. This 
sand fixation is often begun by grasses, 
e.g. the pijpgrass, the fine quick, Sporo- 
bolus, etc. — (the introduced marram grass 
is often planted for this purpose) — and 
by vigorous trailing plants such as Arcto- 
theca and the goats-foot Ipomoea. After 
the first fixation other plants can find 
a foothold, and the well-known berry- 
wax plant and several other shrubs and | I ' . Ij! 
herbaceous plants further restrict sand- 
drift. Finally we get a continuous vege- 
tation and thus new land is reclaimed 
from the sea. The destruction of this 
protective vegetation by human agency is 
often followed by the formation of 
shifting sand-dunes which may be a serious menace. 

On rocky slopes near the sea a special type of dwarf forest or scrub 
may be developed, the trees taking on compact or distorted forms through 
the action of the salt- and sand-laden sea-breezes. 

VLEIS. 

The word vlei is used in many different senses, and each of the different 
types has its own special plants. Even two adjacent vleis may have quite 
different floras on account of differences in salinity or acidity. Many vleis are 
only temporary, having a rich flora in the wet season which dies off and only 
survives in the form of seeds or underground resting-organs (bulbs, tubers, 
etc.), when the water disappears. Such plants as the Water Uintje (Aponogeton), 
the Water Oxalis, the Water Crassula, the Water Crinum, etc., belong to such 
temporary vleis. Where the water persists throughout the year we may find 
other floating plants, for instance, the Water Lily (Nymphaea) and the yellow- 
flowered Limnanthemum with similar floating leaves. These vleis, both 



No. 83 

WILD POMEGRANATE. 

DRIEDORING. 
RHIGOZUM OBOVATUM. 



Page 83 



asemhaalwortels gedurende hoogwater deur die see bedek. In koeler waters 
word brak moddervlaktes dikwels deur die vetplantstammige Seekraal (Salicornia) 
bedek. Bokant hoogwatermerk word die deur die wind aangewaalde seesand 
op sy plek vasgehou as gevolg van 'n reeks kolonisasieprosesse deur plante. 
Hierdie vasbinding van die sand word dikwels deur grasse begin, soos b.v. die 
pypgras, die fyn, vinnige Sporobolus, ens. — (die ingevoerde marramgras word 
dikwels vir hierdie doel geplant) — en deur lewenskragtige rankplante soos 
Arctotheca en die bokpootvormige Ipomoea. Nadat die fondament eers gelê is, 
kan ander plante 'n vat kry en die bekende bessiewasplant en verskeie ander 
soorte struike en bossies verhinder verder die wegdryf van die sand. Eindelik 
kry ons 'n onafgebroke strook plantegroei, en op hierdie manier word nuwe land 
uit die see herwin. Die vernietiging van hierdie beskermende plantegroei deur 
menslike toedoen word dikwels deur die vorming van bewegende sandduine 
gevolg, wat 'n ernstige bedreiging kan word. 

Op rotsagtige hange naby die see kan 'n spesiale soort dwergbos of 
struikgewas ontwikkel, en die borne het 'n ineengedrukte of verwronge 
vorm as gevolg van die uitwerking van seewinde wat met sout of sand 
belaai is. 



No. 84 

KAFFER-KAMPERFOELIE. 
KAFIR HONEYSUCKLE. 
TECOMARIA CAPENSIS. 




VLEIE. 

Die woord vlei word in verskeie 
sinne gebruik, en elkeen van die soorte 
het sy eie besondere plantegroei. Daar 
mag selfs heeltemal verskillende soorte 
plantegroei in twee aaneengrensende vleie 
aanwesig wees, weens die verskil in brak- 
kerigheid of suurheid. Bale vleie is slegs 
van tydelike duur, sodat daar gedurende 
die reënseisoen 'n weelderige plantegroei 
aangetref word wat doodgaan en slegs 
voortbestaan in die vorm van sade of 
ondergrondse rusorgane (bolle, knolle, ens.) 
wanneer die water verdwyn. Sulke plante 
soos die Wateruintjie (Aponogeton), die 
Water-Oxalis, die Waterklipblom, die 
Water Crinum, ens., is almal eie aan sulke 
tydelike vleie. In gevalle waar die water 



Bladsy 84 



permanent and temporary, have also a 
very rich '' flora " of algae and other 
lowly plants which provide an enthralling 
study for the microscopist. 

There are swampy areas, known 
also as vleis, in the plains and moun- 
tains, and these have typically a vege- 
tation of tall grasses, reeds and sedges, 
with which may be associated a large 
variety of other plants (e.g. species of 
Erica, Chironia, Kniphofia, Wachen- 
dorffia, etc.) 

On the whole, however. South 
Africa is poor in aquatic flowering plants 
as compared with wetter countries, but 
the ones that do exist here are of excep- 
tional interest. Some are shared with 
far-distant countries, e.g. the reed-mace 
(Typha) and the water-plantain (Alisma) : 
others are aquatic members of large South 

African genera, most species of which inhabit dry land, e.g. Oxalis, Crassula, 

Crinum, Hypoxis. 




No. 83 

SESAME. 

SESAM. 

SESAMUM CAPENSE. 



RIVERSIDE VEGETATION. 

In the case of rivers which run all the year round, (as distinct from dry 
stream-beds), we find several special trees and shrubs occupying the banks 
and islands : many of these have narrow, elongated leaves. The various kinds 
of Willows (Salix) are typical of such situations, where we also find the inte- 
resting Metrosideros (with Australasian affinities), the curious tree-Composite 
Brachylaena, Freylinia, etc. In addition there are several grasses, reeds and 
rushes amongst the trees, and a very characteristic plant of clear rivers is the 
Palmiet (Prionium) which may grow so thickly as almost to choke the stream. 

MOUNTAIN VEGETATION. 

Under this heading we can include, not a definite plant society, but the 
large number of plants which are at home in the crevices and ledges of 



Page 85 



dwarsdeur die jaar standhoudend is, kan ons ander drywende plante aantref, soos 
by voorbeeld die Waterlelie (Nymphaea) en die geelblommige Limnanthemum 
met soortgelyke drywende blare. Hierdie vleie, sowel dié wat permanent as 
die wat tydelik is, besit ook 'n uitgebreide „flora" soos wier en ander 
primitiewe plante wat 'n boeiende studie vir die mikroskopis vorm. 

Daar is moerasagtige streke, ook bekend as vleie, op die vlaktes en berge 
en hul plantegroei bestaan tipies uit hoe gras, riet en rietgras, waarby ook 
'n groot verskeidenheid ander plantesoorte gereken kan word (b.v. soorte 
Erica, Chironia, Kniphofia, Wachendorffia, ens.). 

In die algemeen is Suid-Afrika egter arm aan hoer waterplante, in 
vergelyking met vogtiger landstreke ; maar die wat hier aanwesig is, is 
buitengewoon interessant. Sommige word ook gevind in verafgeleë lande, b.v. 
die rietfoelie (Typlia) en die waterweeblaar (Alisma) : ander soorte is waterlede 
van groot Suid-Afrikaanse families, die meeste vertakkings waarvan op droë 
grond groei, b.v. Oxalis, Crassula, Crinum, Hypoxis. 

RIVIERWALPLANTEGROEl. 



No. 86 

STREPTOCARPUS MULTIFLORUS. 



In die geval van riviere wat dwarsdeur die jaar loop (in teenstelling met droë 
spruite) vind ons dat verskeie spesiale bome en struike die oewers en eilande 
daarvan begroei : bale van hierdie plante het smal, lang blare. Die verskillende 
soorte Wilgeboom (Salix) is tipies van hierdie streke, waar ons ook die interes- 
sante Metrosideros (met 
Australiese verwante), die 
eienaardige boom - kompo- 
siet, Brachylaena, Freylinia, 
ens., aantref. Boonop is daar 
verskeie grassoorte, riet en 
biesies tussen die bome, en 'n 
uiters kenmerkende plant van 
helder riviere is die Palmiet 
(Prionium) wat so dik kan 
groei dat dit byna die loop van 
die water opdam. 

BERGPLANTEGROEI. 

Onder hierdie hoof kan 
ons insluit nie 'n bepaalde 




Bladsy 86 




No. 87 

MACKAYA. 
MACKAYA BELLA. 



mountain rocks, especially at higher alti- 
tudes where moisture can be obtained 
to some extent throughout the year from 
rain and mountain mists. The flora of 
the upper levels in the Cape coastal 
ranges is very rich and noteworthy, largely 
owing to the effect of the south-easterly 
clouds. Here we find a considerable 
number of dwarf species of Erica. 

On the highest summits in the Cape 
mountains, where snow lies during much 
of the winter, peculiar mat-like plants 
(species of Aspalathus, Helichrysum, 
Roella, etc.), with dense small leaves 
and stalkless flowers lie closely pressed 
to the ground : these are the nearest 
approach to " alpines " that we have 
in South Africa. 

Rocks with a south aspect and a 
constantly moist surface are the homes of the beautiful Red Disa {D. uniflord) 
and Drip Disa {D, longkornu)^ and other Orchids occupy similar situations. 
Some plants are strictly confined to rock crevices, even on relatively arid 
mountains, for instance, the Kliprhenoster {Helichrysum ericoides), Teedia 
lucida and Erica Maximiliani on the inhospitable rocks of the Witteberg and 
Swartberg. 

WEEDS OF CULTIVATION. 

The disturbance of the soil by plough or spade creates a special habitat 
for plants, and some species (which may be infrequent in the wild state) find 
it to their liking and grow in vast numbers as " weeds of cultivation." These 
plants go through their whole life-history between one ploughing and the 
next. Many of them are annuals, often with very conspicuous flowers : the 
brilliant floral display in a good season in Namaqualand is largely due to such 
annual weeds of abandoned wheat-fields. Others are small shrubs, flowering 
in the first or second year and specially adapted to the fallow, such as the 
rhenoster bush (Elytropappus) and the Klaas Louw bush, familiar in the Cape. 
In addition a large number of alien plants are only found as weeds of cultivation. 



Page 87 



plantegenootskap nie, maar die groot aantal plante wat groei in die splete en op 
lyste van bergkranse, veral hoog bokant die seevlak, waar vogtigheid tot 'n 
sekere mate dwarsdeur die jaar in die vorm van reën en bergnewels verkry 
word. Die plantegroei van die boonste dele van die Kaapse kusberge is baie 
weelderig en opvallend, hoofsaaklik weens die uitwerking van die suid-oostelike 
wolke. Hier tref ons 'n aansienlike reeks dwerg-Erica's aan. 

Op die hoogste toppe van die Kaapse berge waar sneeu gedurende 'n groot 
deel van die winter aanwesig is, word eienaardige matagtige plante (soorte 
Aspalathus, Helichrysum, Roella, ens.) met digte klein blaartjies en stamlose 
blommetjies wat dig teen die grond aan gedruk is, aangetref : laasgenoemde is 
die naaste aan Alpe-plantegroei wat ons in Suid-Afrika vind. 

Rotse met 'n suidelike aspek en 'n gedurig vogtige oppervlakte is die tuiste 
van die pragtige Rooi Disa {D, uniflord) en Drupdisa {D, longicornu) en ander 
Orgidee word in dergelike omgewings aangetref. Sommige plantesoorte is streng 
tot rotssplete beperk, selfs op betreklik droë berge, b.v. die Kliprenoster {Heli- 
chrysum ericoides)^ Teedia lucida en Erica Maximiliani op die troostelose rotse 
van die Witteberg en die Swartberg. 

ONKRUID. 



No. 88 

ALBERTA MAGNA 




Die opbreek van die aardlaag deur 'n 
ploeg of 'n graaf skep 'n spesiale tuiste vir 
plante, en sommige soorte (wat skaars is 
in die veld) verkies hierdie soort grond 
met die gevolg dat „onkruid" in menigte 
daar posvat. Baie daarvan is jaarplante, 
dikwels met baie opvallende blomme : 
die kleurryke blommeversameling in 'n 
goeie seisoen in Namakwaland, is 
hoofsaaklik aan sulke jaar-onkruid van 
verlate graanlande te danke. Ander is 
klein struikgewasse, wat in die eerste of 
tweede jaar blom en wat hulle spesiaal by 
brak grond kan aanpas, soos die renoster- 
bos (Elytropappus) en die Klaas Louwbos, 
wat so bekend is in Kaapland. Boonop 
word 'n groot aantal uitheerase plante 
slegs in die vorm van onkruid aangetref. 



Bladsy 88 



® 10 Si 



©líjiria iií?íiia(B^s3 íriL®^^ 




No. 89 

WILD POMEGRANATE. 

BUFFELSHORING. 
BURCHELLIA CAPENSIS. 



IN order to live, grow and reproduce themselves plants must have food. 
Most plants obtain part of their food from the air and part from the soil : 
they take in simple chemical substances by their leaves and roots, and inside 
their living tissues reactions take place by which more living substance and 
organic food materials are produced. The plant is in fact a most elaborate 

chemical laboratory or factory, the ac- 
tivities of which are of marvellous com- 
plexity and co-ordination. 

Life is always a struggle for the wild 
plant : it has to compete with its fellows 
for what is usually a very scanty food 
supply, as well as for space in which 
to develop and light to provide the 
energy to run its living machinery. It 
is not surprising that some plants have 
adopted unorthodox methods for ob- 
taining some or all of their necessary food. 

PARASITES. 

Some plants, known as parasites, 
obtain ' part or the whole of their food 
by attaching themselves to other plants. 




Page 89 



©m 



^aiD-i^s^íEass^^Kíiii !i>íL^]KíiríË©í!i®íiíi 




oe G)ovnnaióe va 




^e van ons Cy/an/^= 
soorie cyL^eef 



No. 90 

KATJIEPIERING. 

GARDENIA. 

GARDENIA THUNBERGII. 



OM te kan lewe, te kan groei en hulself te kan voortplant, moet plante 
voedsel hê. Die meeste plante verkry 'n deel van hul voedsel uit die lug 
en 'n deel daarvan uit die grond : huUe absorbeer eenvoudige chemiese 
bestanddele deur hul blare en wortels en binne in hul lewende weefsels vind 
reaksies plaas waarvolgens meer lewende stof en organiese voedselmateriaal 
voorigebring word. Die plant is trouens 'n mees ingewikkelde chemiese 
laboratorium of fabriek, die bedrywighede waarvan verhasend omvangryk en 
samehangend is. 

Die lewe is altyd 'n stryd vir die veldgewas : hy moet meeding met sy 

makkers om wat gewoonlik 'n 
uiters karige voedselvoorraad 
is, sowel as om ruimte waarin 
hy kan ontwikkel en om lig 
cm die energie te verskaf om 
sy lewende masjinerie aan te 
dryf. Dit is nie verbasend nie 
dat sommige plante onorto- 
dokse metodes aanvaar het, 
waarvolgens hulle 'n gedeelte 
of al hul noodsaaklike voedsel 
verkry. 

PARASIETE. 

Sommige plante, as para- 
siete bekend, verkry 'n dee) of 




Bladsy 90 



called their " hosts." The most familiar 
examples in South Africa are the mistle- 
toes, Viscum and Loranthus, most of 
which grow as bushy masses on the 
stems of other shrubs or trees. Instead 
of roots these plants insert special suckers 
into the tissues of their hosts and rob 
them of portion of their food : they 
are, however, able to obtain the remainder 
of their requirements from the air by 
virtue of the green pigment, chlorophyll, 
which they possess in their leaves or 
stems. They are therefore only " partial 
parasites." The seeds of these mistletoes 
are deposited on the branches of the host 
by birds, whence the name " voëlent." 

There are many other partial para- 
sites which attach themselves to the 
roots of their hosts : careful digging 
is necessary to reveal the connections. 
(E.g. species of Thesium, Melasma, etc.) 

Total parasitism is displayed by several indigenous plants which derive 
the whole of their food in organic form from their hosts. The baviaanskost> 
Hydnora, is parasitic on Euphorbias, and its strange solid brown and pink 
flower was once mistaken for a fungus. The bright red inflorescences of Hyo- 
banche are well known, pushing out of the bare soil. Both of these are attached 
to their hosts underground. The dodder (Cuscuta) and the nooishaar (Cassytha) 
twine round the stems and leaves of their hosts into which they insert their 
suckers. The witchweed (Striga) is a serious pest in mealie lands. A feature of 
all these total parasites is the absence or scantiness of green chlorophyll and 
the fact that they are leafless or merely bear scales in place of leaves. 




No. 91 

SCABIOUS. 
SCABIOSA COLUMBARIA. 



CARNIVOROUS PLANTS. 

Another unusual method of obtaining food is that of the carnivorous 
(or insectivorous) plants, of which our flora contains several. The sundews 
(Drosera) have special glistening and sticky tentacles on their leaves : these 
attract small insects which are firmly caught. The tentacles then excrete a digestive 



Page 91 



called their " hosts." The most familiar 
examples in South Africa are the mistle- 
toes, Viscum and Loranthus, most of 
which grow as bushy masses on the 
stems of other shrubs or trees. Instead 
of roots these plants insert special suckers 
into the tissues of their hosts and rob 
them of portion of their food : they 
are, however, able to obtain the remainder 
of their requirements 
virtue of the green pig 
which they possess ir 
stems. They are theref 
parasites." The seeds ( 
are deposited on the br; 
by birds, whence the n2 
There are many c 
sites which attach Ú 
roots of their hosts : 
is necessary to reveal 
(E.g. species of Thesium, Melasma, etc.) 

Total parasitism is displayed by several indigenous pli 
the whole of their food in organic form from their hosts. 
Hydnora, is parasitic on Euphorbias, and its strange solid 
flower was once mistaken for a fungus. The bright red infloi.*.o^».ii^».a kjl ax^vj— 
banche are well known, pushing out of the bare soil. Both of these are attached 
to their hosts underground. The dodder (Cuscuta) and the nooishaar (Cassytha) 
twine round the stems and leaves of their hosts into which they insert their 
suckers. The witchweed (Striga) is a serious pest in mealie lands. A feature of 
all these total parasites is the absence or scantiness of green chlorophyll and 
the fact that they are leafless or merely bear scales in place of leaves. 




No. 91 

SCABIOUS. 
SCABIOSA COLUMBARIA. 




CARNIVOROUS PLANTS. 

Another unusual method of obtaining food is that of the carnivorous 
(or insectivorous) plants, of which our flora contains several. The sundews 
(Drosera) have special glistening and sticky tentacles on their leaves : these 
attract small insects which are firmly caught. The tentacles then excrete a digestive 



Page 91 



) 




1 i 




BRUNIA STOKOEI 



mam 



Brttnia Stokoei is a recent discovery in the Hottentots Holland Mountains. 
It is a handsome shrub of six to eight feet in height, and its crimson flower- 
heads are striking and unusual in this family in which white flowers pre- 
dominate. Flowers in February and March. Grown at Kirstenbosch. 

Brmia Stokoei is 'n onlangse ontdekking in die HottentotshoDandberge. 
Dit is 'n pragtige struikgewas, ses tot agt voet hoog en die bloedrooi 
blomhofies daarvan is pragtig en buitengewoon in hierdie familie, waarin 
wit blomme die botoon voer. Blom in Februarie en Maart. Op Kirsten- 
bosch gekweek. 



al hul voedsel deur hulself aan ander plante bekend as hul „gashere" te bevestig. 
Die bekendste voorbeelde in Suid-Afrika is die voëlent, Viscum en Loranthus, 
die meeste waarvan in 'n digte bos op die stamme van ander struikgewasse 
of borne aanwesig is. I. p. v. wortels, plaas hierdie plante spesiale suiers in die 
weefsels van hul gashere en beroof hulle van 'n deel van hul voedsel : hulle is 
egter daartoe in staat om die res van hul benodigdhede uit die lug te verkry, 
danksy hul groen kleurstof, klorofiel, wat in hul blare of stamme aanwesig is. 
Hulle is derhalwe slegs „gedeeltelik parasities". Die saad van hierdie plante 
word deur voels op die takke van hul gasheer agtergelaat, van daar die naam 
„voëlent". 

Daar is talryke ander gedeeltelike parasiete wat hulself aan die wortels van 
hul gashere bevestig : sorgvuldige opgrawing is nodig om die verbindings te 
kan bespeur (b.v. soorte Thesium, Melasma, ens.). 

Totale parasitisme word geopenbaar deur verskeie inheemse plante wat hul 
hele voedselvoorraad in organiese vorm van hul gashere verkry. Die bobbe- 
jaanskos, Hydnora, is parasities op Euphorbias en die vreemde soliede bruin en 
ligroos bloeisel is vroeër foutief as 'n swam bestempel. Die helder rooi bloeisels 
van Hyobanche, wat uit die kaal grond opstoot, is goed bekend. Albei hiervan 
is onder die grond aan hul gashere ge- 
vestig. Die dodder (Cuscuta) en die 
nooienshaar (Cassytha) draai hulle om die 
stamme en blare van hul gashere waarin 
hul hul suiers laat deurdring. Die rooi- 
blom (Striga) is 'n ernstige pes in mielie- 
lande. 'n Kenmerk van al hierdie totale 
parasiete is die afwesigheid van of skaarste 
aan groen- Idorofiel en die feit dat hulle 
blaarloos is of bloot skale i.p.v. blare, dra. 

VLEESETENDE PLANTE. 

Nog 'n buitengewone metode van 
voedsel te verkry, word geopenbaar deur 
die vleesetende (of insekte-etende) plante, 
waarvan daar verskeie voorbeelde onder 
ons plantegroei bestaan. Die „sundews" 
(Drosera) besit spesiale, glinsterende en 
klewerige voelhaartjies op hul blare : hulle 
lok klein insektetjies aan wat styf vasgehou 



No. 92 

BLOU LOBELIA. 

BLUE LOBELIA. 

LOBELIA PINIFOLIA. 




Bladsy 92 




liquid which dissolves the soft tissues 
of the insect, the products being absorbed 
into the plant through the leaf surface. 
In this way the sundews obtain nitro- 
genous food. (It may be remarked that 
there are many other plants which catch 
insects by means of sticky excretions, 
but make no use of them as food and 
are therefore not to be called carnivorous.) 
In the Utricularias, which live in 
water or in saturated soil, the plant bears 
small bladder-like traps of remarkable 
construction. The trap has a water- 
tight door in front, and when " set " 
its sides are flattened. If an inquisitive 
small water animal touches the door it 
springs open and the elastic sides of 
the trap expand, so that there is a rush 
of water into the trap which carries 
the animal inside. Once caught the 
animal finds escape impossible, dies and is digested by the plant. 

SUCCULENCE. 

The life of a plant not only involves a struggle for food, but also for 
water. In such a country as this where rainfall over great areas is either 
scanty or erratic or both, and where prolonged dry periods or drought seasons 
are frequent, any plant must solve the water problem efficiently or perish. 
The device known as succulence is one of the many ways in which plants cope 
with water scarcity, and South Africa is outstanding, along with the dry 
regions of America, for the wealth of succulents in its flora. And whereas 
in America very few families (Cactaceae, Crassulaceae) contain succulents, 
in South Africa they occur in a large number of families and in an amazing 
variety of forms. (See p. 65.) 

Succulence may be exhibited by stems or leaves. Examples of stem- 
succulents are the Euphorbias and the various genera belonging to the Stapelia 
family : in these plants the leaves are mere vestiges and all the vegetative 
functions as well as water storage are carried out by the swollen stems. The 



No. 93 

ROELLA CILIATA. 



Page 93 



word. Die voelhaartjies skei dan 'n absorberende vloeistof af wat die sagte 
weefsels van die insek oplos, en die oplossing word dan in die plant in deur die 
oppervlakte van die blaar geabsorbeer. Op hierdie manier verkry die plant 
stikstofbevattende voedsel. (Daar kan aangestip word dat daar verskeie ander 
soorte plante bestaan, wat insekte deur middel van klewerige afskeidings vang, 
maar hulle teer nie op die insekte nie, en dus kan hulle nie as vleesetend bestempel 
word nie.) 

In die Utricularias, wat in water of deurweekte grond aangetref word, besit 
die plant klein blaasagtige valletjies wat merkwaardig saamgestel is. Die valletjie 
besit 'n waterdigte deur voor en wanneer hy „gester' is, is die kante plat. As 'n 
nuuskierige klein waterdiertjie die deur aanraak, vlieg hy oop, en die rekbare 
kante van die valletjie sit uit, sodat daar 'n hoeveelheid water die valletjie binne- 
vloei en die diertjie op hierdie manier binne-in laat beland. Wanneer die diertjie 
eers binnekant is, is dit vir horn onmoontlik om te ontvlug, gevolglik sterf hy 
en word hy deur die plant geabsorbeer. 

SAPPIGHEID. 



No. 94 

GOUSBLOM. 

MARIGOLD. 

ARCTOTIS SPP. 




Die lewe van 'n plant gaan nie alleen 
gepaard met 'n stryd om voedsel nie, 
maar ook om water. In 'n land soos ons 
s'n waar die reënval oor uitgestrekte ge- 
biede of karig of onreëlmatig of albei is, 
en waar aanhoudende droogtes dikwels 
ondervind word, is enige plant daartoe 
genoodsaak om sy watervraagstuk doel- 
treíFend op te los of om te vergaan. Wat 
ons ken as sappigheid, is een van die bale 
maniere waarop plante 'n skaarste aan 
water die hoof bied, en Suid-Afrika en die 
droë streke van Amerika is beroemd weens 
hul talryke sukkulente of vetplante. En 
waar in Amerika bale min families (Cac- 
taceae, Crassulaceae) sukkulente be vat ^ 
kom hulle in Suid-Afrika in 'n groot aantal 
families en in 'n verbasende verskeiden- 
heid van vorms voor. (Sien bl. 66,) 

Sappigheid kan deur die stamme of 



Bladsj/ 94 




vast group of the Mesembryanthemums 
are nearly all leaf-succulents : some have 
elongated slender stems with pairs of 
fleshy leaves at intervals ; these are the 
shrubby and trailing types. Others, the 
so-called stemless types, have short stems 
and very few — often only two — much 
enlarged leaves at a time ; and in the 
most highly specialised types the fleshy 
leaves and stems are fused into one 
mass which sometimes approaches a 
spherical shape, this being the form 
which exposes the least surface relatively 
to bulk. The large genus Crassula shows 
a smaller range of similar forms. 

Some plants have both stems and 
leaves succulent, for instance the botter- 
boom of the Karoo (a Cotyledon) and 
the botterboom of South -West Africa (a 
Cissus), both of which have the additional 
peculiarity that they are deciduous, the former losing its leaves in the summer, 
the latter in the winter. Other plants, which may also be regarded as succulents, 
store water in underground tubers, roots or bulbs. 

The function of succulence is of course to conserve water and so enable 
the plant to survive during long dry periods. The majority of succulents have 
roots very near the surface of the soil, so that they are able to take up moisture 
from quite small showers or even from a heavy dew such as is deposited on 
the cold ground before sunrise. Once inside the plant this moisture is held 
with great tenacity. The temperature inside a Euphorbia stem may be as much 
as 125 degrees during a hot day ; and succulents in full sunshine may become 
too hot to touch comfortably, like the soil around them : yet they remain 
plump and full of their precious water. They are able to do this because of 
their very impervious outer skin or cuticle and also because they contain muci- 
laginous substances which retain water strongly. 

Some succulents are called mimicry plants because they so closely resemble 
in form and colour the stones among which they grow as to be almost invisible 
to any but a trained and watchful eye. The various species of Lithops and 



No. 95 

WILD ASTER. 

WILDE ASTER 

ASTER FRUTICULOSUS. 



Page 95 



blare getoon word. Voorbeelde van stam-sukkulente is die Euphorbias en die ver- 
skillende geslagte wat onder die Stapelia-familie ressorteer : in liierdie plant e 
is die blare bloot 'n oorblyfsel, en al die plantaardige funksies sowel as die water- 
bewaring word deur die opgeswelde stamme waargeneem. Die reuse-groep 
Mesembryanthemums is byna almal blaar-sukkulente : sommige besit lang- 
werpige slank stammetjies met af en toe pare vleesagtige blaartjies ; hulle is die 
struik- en ranksoorte. Ander, die sogenaamde stamlose soorte, besit kort stam- 
metjies en bale min — dikwels slegs twee — bale vergrote blaartjies op 'n slag ; 
en in die geval van die hoogs gespesialiseerde tipes is die vleesagtige blare en 
stamme in een massa saamgesmelt, wat somtyds naasteby die fatsoen van 'n 
sfeer besit, aangesien dit 'n vorm is wat die kleinste oppervlakte in verhouding 
tot die grootte blootstel. Die groot geslag Crassula toon ons 'n kleiner reeks 
dergelike fatsoene. 

Sommige plante het sappige stamme sowel as blare, b.v. die botterboom van 
die Karoo ('n Cotyledon) en die botterboom van Suidwes-Afrika ('n Cissus), 
albei waarvan 'n bykomende eienaardigheid besit, naamlik dat hulle bladwisse- 
lend is — die eersgenoemde verloor sy blare in die somer en laasgenoemde in die 
winter. Ander plante, wat ook as sukkulente beskou kan word, vergader water 
in ondergrondse knolle, wortels of bolle. 

Die doel van sappigheid is natuurlik 
om water te bewaar en om die plant op 
hierdie manier in staat te stel om gedurende 
lang droë tydperke te kan voortbestaan. 
Die meerderheid van sukkulente besit 
wortels bale naby die oppervlakte van die 
grond, sodat hulle in staat is om vogtigheid 
van 'n ligte reën of selfs van 'n swaar dou- 
neerslag wat voor sonop op die koue grond 
gelaat word, te absorbeer. Wanneer hierdie 
vogtigheid eenmaal binne in die plant is, 
word dit daar hardnekkig bewaar. Die 
temperatuur binne 'n Euphorbia-stam kan 
soveel as 125 grade gedurende 'n warm 
dag beloop ; en sukkulente wat aan die 
voile gloed van die son blootgestel is, kan 
te warm word om met gemak aangeraak 
te word, net soos die grond rondom hulle ; 
tog bly hulle dik en vol kosbare vog. 



No. 96 

BLOU MADELIEFIE. 

BLUE DAISY. 

CHARIEIS HETEROPHYLLA. 




Bladsy 96 




Pleiospilos known as stone plants are 
celebrated for their mimicry. Many people 
think this must be a means of detence 
against grazing animals : but this is to 
underrate the sharpness of sight and smell 
of a hungry animal : moreover these 
plants are often very conspicuous when 
they flower. The reason why animals 
do not destroy them is probably not 
because they are inconspicuous but be- 
cause they are unpalatable. 

REPRODUCTION. 



From the plant's point of view the 
flower is a means towards the produc- 
tion of seed for the propagation of the 
species. In order to produce seed pollen 
has to be placed on the stigma of the 
flower, and in most flowers this can only take 
place if it is somehow carried there. Moreover, in many cases a plant's own pollen 
cannot eflect fertilisation, so that pollen has to be brought from another plant. 

Some flowers are wind-pollinated : these are usually small, inconspicuous, 
without scent and nectar, have long feathery stigmas and produce large 
quantities of dry, dusty pollen. The grasses are examples of this, and the 
pollination of such a grass as the mealie is familiar to everyone. 

Other flowers have conspicuous colours, perfumes and nectar, relatively 
smaller stigmas, and sticky pollen in smaller quantity. These are pollinated by 
insects — bees, flies, moths, beetles, etc. — ^which visit one flower after another 
and so transfer the pollen : and in South Africa we also have many flowers 
regularly visited by the long-beaked sugar-birds — the Proteas and some long- 
tubed heaths, for instance. This subject of insect- and bird-pollination is a 
most attractive study for the nature-lover and has been very little explored in 
the Union. 

Seed having been produced, it must be dispersed, and here again similar 
agencies come into play. The wind carries the very small seeds and also those 
with membranous wings or feathery parachutes. Birds eat sweet, fleshy coloured 
fruits and excrete the undigested seeds. 



No. 97 

KLAAS LOUWBOS. 
ATHANASIA TRIFURCATA. 



Animals pick up burs and sticky 



Page 97 



Hulle is hiertoe in staat weens hul uiters ondeurdringbare vel of opperhuid en 
ook omdat hulle slymerige samestellings bevat wat water uitstekend bewaar. 

Sommige sukkulente word mimiekplante genoem, omdat hulle in vorm en 
kleur so verbasend op die klippe waartussen hulle groei, gelyk dat hulle feitlik 
onsigbaar is vir alle oë behalwe dié wat daartoe opgelei of oplettend is. Die 
verskillende soorte Lithops en Pleiospilos, bekend as klipplante, is bekend weens 
hul nabootsing. Baie mense meen dat dit 'n verdedigingsmaatreël teen weidende 
diere is : maar dit sou 'n onderskatting van die oë en ruik van 'n honger dier wees : 
wat meer is, hierdie plante is dikwels baie opvallend wanneer hulle blom. Die 
rede waarom diere hulle nie vernietig nie, is waarskynlik nie omdat hulle onop- 
vallend is nie, maar omdat hulle onsmaaklik is. 



3 



VOORTPLANTING. 



No. 98 

BARBERTON DAISY. 
GERBERA JAMESONII. 



Uit die oogpunt van die plant beskou, is die bloeisel 'n middel vir die vorming 
van saad om die geslag mee voort te plant. Om saad te kan vorm, moet stuifmeel 
op die stempel van die blom geplaas word, en in die geval van die meeste soorte 
blomme kan dit slegs geskied as dit op een of ander manier daarheen gevoer word. 

Voorts, in baie gevalle kan die plant se 
eie stuifmeel nie bevrugting teweegbring 
nie, en derhalwe moet stuifmeel van 'n 
ander plant gebring word. 

Sommige soorte blomme word deur 
die wind bestuif : hulle is gewoonlik klein, 
onopvallend, sonder geur en heuning, 
besit lang veeragtige stempels en bring 
groot hoeveelhede droë, poeieragtige stuif- 
meel voort. Die grassoorte is 'n voor- 
beeld hiervan en die bestuiwing van so 'n 
grassoort soos die mielie is bekend aan 
elkeen. 

Ander soorte blomme besit opvallende 
kleure, geure en heuning, betreklik kleiner 
stempels en 'n kleiner hoeveelheid klewe- 
rige stuifmeel. Hulle word bestuif deur 
insekte — bye, vlieë, motte, kewers, ens. — 
wat een blom na die ander besoek en op 
hierdie manier die stuifmeel oordra : en 




Bladsy 98 



seeds. Some plants have elastic mechanisms which shoot the ripe seeds to a 
distance. Others produce seeds which can float uninjured for thousands of miles 
in ocean currents. 

The life of plants is a struggle for water, food, light and air : their re- 
production involves, as it were, the most ingenious use of wind, water and the 
impulses and habits of insects, birds and animals. In South Africa we live 
in the midst of these marvels, for all who have eyes to see. 



No. 99. 

EVERLASTING. 

SEWEJAARTJIE. 

PHOENOCOMA PROLIFERA 




Page 99 



in Suid-Afrika besit ons ook talryke soorte blomme wat gereeld deur die lang- 
bekkige suikervoëltjies besoek word — b.v. die Proteas en 'n paar heidesoorte 
met lang kelkies. Hierdie onderwerp van bestuiwing deur insekte en voëls 
is 'n uiters boeiende studie vir die natuurliefhebber en baie min aandag is nog 
daaraan bestee in die Unie. 

Wanneer saad gevorm is, moet dit versprei word, en hier weer kom derge- 
like middels in aanmerking. Die wind dra die klein saadjies en ook die met 
vliesagtige vlerkies of veeragtige valskermpies. Voëls eet soet, vleserige vrugte 
en werp die onverteerde saad uit. Diere tel klitse en klewerige sade op. Sommige 
plante besit 'n veerkragtige meganisme wat die ryp saad 'n ent wegskiet. Ander 
bring saad voort wat duisende myle in seestrome kan dryf. 

Die lewe van plante is 'n stryd om water, voedsel, lig en lug : hul voort- 
planting is as 't ware afhanklik van die vernuftigste gebruik van wind, water 
en die gewoontes van insekte, voels en diere. In Suid-Afrika leef ons te midde 
van al hierdie wonders, as ons net ons oë wil gebruik. 



No. 100 

URSINIA ANETHOIDES. 




Bladsy too 



Prim little scholars are the flowers of her garden, 

Trained to stand in rowSy and asking if they please. 

I might love them well but for loving more the wild ones . 
O my wild ones ! they tell me more than these, 

{Meredith: Love in the Valley), 



Nette klein leerlinge is die hlomme van haar tuin, 

Geoefen in rye te staan en te vra asseblief, 
Ek mag hulk hemin maar die wilde hlommetjies het ek meer lief : 

O, mj wilde hlomtnetjies l htille vertel my meer dan hierdie, 

{Meredith: Love in the Valley), 



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